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Reactive Oxygen Species and Cancer Cells Relationship


The study research problem focuses on the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by oxidative stress and cancer cells. Reviewing the premises of stress, Sosa et al. (2013) reflect on several ways of ROS resistance, involving the glycolytic pathway into the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) along with the production of lactate. The research question is identified as follows: how oxidative stress affects cancer occurrence. Initially, the authors determine the following hypothesis: there is a potential causal relationship between oxidative stress experienced by a person and oncology. Based on the method of literature review, they verify this hypothesis and conclude that ROS regulation is of great importance for cancer prevention. They also emphasize that the development of new biomarkers is critical in terms of pro-oxidant therapies.

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Evaluate the Research Methods

The authors provide a literature review to analyze the existing evidence and interpret it. The research is relevant to nowadays healthcare concerns as the level of cancer grows exponentially. It should be noted that despite several billion spent over the past 20 years on cancer research, the death rate from this disease has increased over the same 20 years and continues to grow. This fact makes one believe that there is a need to revise the approach to the problem of cancer prevention and treatment. This fact leads to a strong concern of researchers and practicing doctors, who argue that it is time to change something.

Currently, there is a lack of scientific research regarding the psychological factors of cancer. However, several studies examine the relationships between stress, personality, and health and conclude that psychological reasons can be the source of mechanisms that create the prerequisites for cancer. In particular, oxidative stress is a condition, in which there are too many free radicals in the body. These radicals cause a chain reaction, thus breaking the integrity of cells and leading to their damage or death. In a situation of massive exposure to free radicals and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, a human recovery system is completely occupied with the rescue and restoration of genetic material. With increasing oxidative stress, damage begins to affect the restorative system, which eventually leads to DNA mutation. These facts allow scholars to state that strong oxidative stress is the source, due to which DNA damage is predictable, which, in turn, inevitably leads to the formation of cancer. People with cancer get hope for recovery because there are doctors who investigate the causes of cancer and give recommendations on its prevention.

In their study, Sosa et al. (2013) use a non-empirical method of research, namely, a theoretical study. This method implies the selection and consideration of individual aspects, characteristics, and properties of the phenomena. Analyzing individual facts as well as grouping and systematizing them, the authors specify the general and particular mechanisms and establish a common principle. The analysis is accompanied by the synthesis, which helps to penetrate the essence of the phenomena being studied. The method selected to conduct the given study makes it possible to detect hidden regularities, gaps, and inconsistencies to understand the mutual influence of the factors determining the dynamics of the overall development. After performing the analytical work, the scholars synthesize and integrate the results of the analysis in a system.

Speaking of the sample, it is important to point out that there are no particular respondents since the study focuses on the overview of the recent literature. The total number of articles used in the given study is not indicated. However, the reference list presents more than one hundred sources. Therefore, the sample may be considered appropriate for the research. This work seems to be quite practical as the authors suggest specific solutions to address the problem of stress-related cancer through ROS resistance. Consistent with Gorrini, Harris, and Mak (2013) as well as Matés, Segura, Alonso, and Márquez (2012), the authors try to reduce cancer level and study the psychological mechanisms involved in the process of cells development. Remarkably, they support each of the used articles with valuable comments and integrate them into the literature review. As for the practical side, they do not emphasize it in particular, yet provide in general throughout the paper. I believe that the results of this research may be applied to conduct further experimental studies and then implement their findings in practice.

In my point of view, the research study seems to be comprehensive and relevant to the concerns of healthcare. It uses sufficient sources to create a trustworthy analysis and provide some important recommendations. Also, the authors incorporate several figures to make information more understandable and visible to readers. Nonetheless, it seems that some improvements may be suggested to make the paper look better. For example, it is possible to assume that the methodology section may be created to clarify the sample, the theoretical framework, the methods, and other related information so that readers have the opportunity to realize the importance of the research. More to the point, it would be better if the authors considered some associated factors of stress such as, smoking or fatigue. The mentioned suggestion seems to be critical as people tend to experience oxidative stress, which may be partially or fully caused by them.

The writing style used by the authors is clear straightforward. In particular, they explain the key concepts and methods and attempt to attract both scholars and average readers. If the first is likely to benefit from this article by using its results for their future studies or coming up with new ideas, then the latter may be interested in this study because of their personal needs. For example, the study may promote one to ponder over the importance of preventing and addressing oxidative stress. In this regard, the results of the given study may serve as a foundation for further studies in the field of psychological stress and cancer prevention. It seems critical to conduct surveys and field experiments to reveal the genuine impact of ROS retention ways suggested by the authors.

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In conclusion, it should be stressed that the research study by Sosa et al. (2013) is relevant to modern healthcare concerns and it is based on the overview of the recent scholarly sources. Integrating the existing literature, the authors analyze and interpret it appropriately. The findings of the given article outline the potential ways of ROS retention such as antioxidants use, glycolysis inhibition, and pro-oxidant therapy. The hypothesis made by the authors is verified in the course of the study. Sosa et al. (2013) provide a clear writing style and properly cite each of the sources. This article seems to be of interest to both scholars and average readers.


Gorrini, C., Harris, I. S., & Mak, T. W. (2013). Modulation of oxidative stress as an anticancer strategy. Nature Reviews: Drug discovery, 12(12), 931-947.

Matés, J. M., Segura, J. A., Alonso, F. J., & Márquez, J. (2012). Oxidative stress in apoptosis and cancer: An update. Archives of Toxicology, 86(11), 1649-1665.

Sosa, V., Moliné, T., Somoza, R., Paciucci, R., Kondoh, H., & LLeonart, M. E. (2013). Oxidative stress and cancer: An overview. Ageing Research Reviews, 12(1), 376-390.

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