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Recommendations for Future Language Development

Lesson Number Functional/ structural Skills objectives Phonological objectives Lexical objectives Rationale
1. To be able to use the present simple of the verb to be when introducing people.

To develop the use of the verb to bein the present tense.

To develop speaking skills to introduce oneself and introduce others.

To develop writing skills: writing a letter to a new pen friend.

To practice the pronunciation of the sound /z/. To revise vocabulary suitable for introducing people (jobs, hobbies, cardinal numerals). The learner is a false beginner and she has problems when using the verb to be. She also seems to have certain difficulties with numerals. As any other Thai learner of English, the learner tends to pronounce s instead of /z/. The reason for that is native language interference as in Thai there is sound /s/ (Swan & Smith, 2002). Nakamura (2005) argues that pronunciation mistakes are quite serious and educators have to pay more attention to students’ pronunciation.

It is necessary to note that being able to use the present tense of the verb to be (as well as vocabulary related to introducing people) is the basis and learners have to use this central structure without any mistakes. Writing a letter to a penfriend is a conventional and quite effective writing task that enables the learner to pay more attention to grammar. It is also possible to use tongue twisters as well as phoneme segmentation tasks (Nakamura, 2005).

Nakamura (2005) stresses that educators often ignore the need to teach proper pronunciation and learners end up talking poor English. The use of /s/ and /z/ is one example when learners as well as teachers focus on grammar and do not work on the pronunciation. Since the learner will need the language in her future career, she should speak correct English.

2. To be able to describe an action in progress.

To develop the use of present continuous tense.

To practice scanning reading skills. To practice pronunciation (stress) of polysyllabic words. To learn vocabulary related to domestic routine.

Revise the vocabulary on family members.

To learn collocation nouns (do, make).

Present Continuous is one of the major tenses in English and is widely used. It is also necessary to note that there are no such complex tenses in Thai and Thai speakers use modifiers to reveal time reference (Swan & Smith, 2002). At the same time, the learner should be able to use the tense when speaking about herself or other people.

The learner will also be able to practice the use of the verb to be in the present tense. At present, the learner has significant issues with the use of the verb as she tends to omit it. Clearly, the ability to use present continuous is the necessary basis for acquiring new skills.

Scanning is important for a learner of English as the ability to scan texts will be essential for completing a variety of tasks in the future.

Notably, present continuous, as well as vocabulary on domestic routine, is appropriate for practicing the stress in polysyllabic words.

The use of collocations will expand the learner’s vocabulary, which is crucial for a learner of English.

Thai students tend to put stress on the last syllable (Swan & Smith, 2002). It is essential to draw the learner’s attention to her use of stress. She should remember that, in English, stress is usually put on the first syllable.

Lesson Number Functional/ structural Skills objectives Phonological objectives Lexical objectives Rationale
3. To be able to talk about present regular actions.

To develop the use of present simple tense.

To develop speaking skills to discuss daily routines to be able to talk about oneself.

To develop listening skills (listening to a conversation of people talking about their hobbies and daily routines and completing some tasks).

The use of such sounds as /s/ and /z/. To be able to differentiate and use correctly short and long sound /i/. Expand the vocabulary on daily routines, hobbies.

It is also possible to introduce words of likes and dislikes as well as preferences.

The ability to use present simple is essential for a learner of English. Correct use of present tense will help the learner to acquire new skills (for example, simple past, past continuous).

At that, this grammar unit can also help practice the use of such sounds as /s/ and /z/.

It is also quite easy to practice the vocabulary related to daily routines and hobbies, which is important for any small talk, introduction as well as further learning of English.

Thai students often pronounce sounds with similar duration (Swan & Smith, 2002). However, this can lead to mistakes in English as the duration of the sound can change the word’s meaning. Hence, the learner has to be able to differentiate between the two sounds as well as use sounds correctly.

It is also essential to develop listening skills as they are important for proper communication as the learner will need the language in her future career. Listening tasks will also help the learner to listen to correct pronunciation and focus on her way of speaking. It can also be effective to ask the learner to record her conversation with others and then analyze her pronunciation.

4. The difference between present simple and present continuous.

To be able to differentiate between the two tenses and to be able to use them correctly.

To develop speaking skills to talk about oneself and other people. To introduce other people.

To develop writing skills: to write about a new life in a college (or time spent during a holiday).

To be able to pronounce sounds /l/, /r/ and /p/ correctly. To learn collocation nouns (have, get).

To learn some phrasal verbs which are most commonly used.

The student has difficulties with the present tense and the use of the verb to be. The use of the two tenses will be the necessary basis for the learner’s further study.

Again, it will also enable the student to practice pronunciation. Thai students often mispronounce sounds /l/ and /r/ and it seems that the speakers pronounce /RL/ (Swan & Smith, 2002). Pronunciation of /p/ can be the most challenging task as, in Thai, there is a sound /ph/. Pronunciation tasks (drills, tongue twisters as well as phoneme segmentation) will help the learner develop the necessary skills and pronounce sounds correctly.

Writing a letter will enable the learner to pay more attention to the use of the verb to be as well as present forms of other verbs. The learner will also be able to use all the vocabulary acquired during previous lessons.

Learning some most widespread phrasal verbs is beneficial for the student. She has quite good (for her level) vocabulary and it is necessary to make the learner further develop and expand her vocabulary.

Reference List

Nakamura, T. (2005). CALL based tasks for false beginners: The effects of top-down processing and multi-sensory tasks on their reading skills. Web.

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Swan, M., & Smith, B. (2002). Learner English: A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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