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Relation Between Global Health and External Factors

Introduction

Climate change is as a subject of worldwide concerns because of its overarching effects on global health. It leads to increasing global average temperature and heat waves, consequently exacerbating cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and chronic kidney (Hess et al., 2020). Other threats to global health are pollutants from households, industries, municipalities, and hospitals. Chemicals, sludge, and degrading elemental resources are dangerous to humans and the ecosystem. Furthermore, pandemics, such as influenza and COVID-19, interrupt worldwide human well-being. The paper discusses impacts of global health, symptoms of broken systems, pollution, and pandemic threats.

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Climate Change

Ethics Morality

Many nations move towards domestic legal frameworks and international treaties to regulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, they are not keen on the duty of care, intergenerational justice, and ethical adherence (Tong et al., 2019). The US government’s Export-Import Bank and World Bank still offer multi-billion resource to coal-fired plants. Conversely, those in the US produced 72% of greenhouse gases in 2010 (Tong et al., 2019). Disturbingly, an estimated 600 deaths due to cardio-pulmonary diseases originated from the effects of World Bank-funded coal-fired plants (Tong et al., 2019). Authorities, the private sector, and financiers have the moral obligation and facilitate initiatives with no impact on human health and climate change.

Number of Statistics

Impact on Global Health

Extremely high air temperature is a direct contributor to death cases from respiratory and cardiovascular complications in elderly individuals. Europe recorded about 70 000 excess deaths in the 2003 summer heatwave (Junk et al., 2019). Similarly, variable rainfall patterns due to climate change cause freshwater scarcity. Inadequate amount of safe water compromises hygiene and amplifies water-borne disease potential. Diarrhoeal illnesses kill more than 500 00 children aged below five years per annum (Junk et al., 2019). Individual choices and policies should focus on carbon emission reduction and produce health benefits.

Symptoms of a Broken System

Signs of broken systems are temperature rise, sea level increase, and extreme drought. The global land’s average temperate in 2019 was 0.95 degrees Celsius above the twentieth-century estimate of 13.9 degrees Celsius (Lyons et al., 2018). Likewise, mean sea-level increase globally is approximately eight inches since 1880, and a third of the rise happened in the last two and a half decades (Lyons et al., 2018). About 85% of documented disasters originate from climate change instigated droughts, heat waves, and cyclones (Lyons et al., 2018). Authorities and private sectors should take drastic actions to adapt to the impacts of temperature upsurge, sea level escalation, and drought.

Pollution

Environmental Waste

Wastes are non-prime product materials, which municipalities, industries, hospitals do not need for production, consumption, and production purposes. Municipal litters those originate from households, commercial activities, and demolition. Industrial wastes include concrete, gravel, solvents, scrap lumber, chemicals, and scrap metals (Ali et al., 2019). Hospital wastes are infectious materials, infusion kits, and bandages. Hazardous materials are radioactive elements, explosives, and electronic equipment. Notably, the key sources of environmental wastes are municipals, hazards, industries, and hospitals.

The Effect of Long Term Polluting

Water, land, and air pollution

Micro-organisms and chemicals from water pollution render rivers, lakes, streams, and aquifers toxic to humans and the environment. Likewise, solid and liquid waste contaminate soil and underground water (Campbell-Lendrum et al., 2019). The primary air pollutants harmful to humans, living organisms, and built or natural environment are particulates, chlorofluorocarbons, and biological molecules (Campbell-Lendrum et al., 2019). Pollutants in soil, water, and air affect social and environmental determinants of health.

Wasting Elemental Resources

Metal compounds used as coatings, electronic equipment, and alloys usually end up as wastes. Sewage sludge, smelting operations, and dredged materials have metal-containing litters (Guo et al., 2020). Besides, degenerative elemental materials from electronic equipment are arsenic, lead, mercury, chromium, and cobalt (Guo et al., 2020). They can cause thyroid dysfunction, reduced lung function, adverse congenital disabilities, and behavioral changes. Workers get exposed to degrading essential resources when they management them inappropriately.

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Pandemic Threats

Coronavirus

COVID-19 exposed the way worldwide vigilance to infectious diseases is fragile. The pandemic infected 1 500 000 patients and killed 88 000 people in three months (Van Damme et al., 2020). Cough, fever, and short breath are the main COVID-19 symptoms, and they appear after fourteen days (Van Damme et al., 2020). Adults aged 60 years and above and individuals with diabetes, heart problems, and lung diseases are at higher risk of severe complications from COVID-19.

Influenza

Population Suffering

Seasonal influenza occurs during cold seasons in the Northern and Southern hemispheres’ winters and circulates in the tropics throughout the year. The pandemic kills around 650 000 people per annum (Faust et al., 2020). Its symptoms are cough, muscle pain, headache, and runny nose (Faust et al., 2020). The most vulnerable population is older people, children below five-year-old, individuals with weak immunity, and pregnant women.

Health System Facts

Influenza is a contagious flu, and a person without symptoms can pass the signs after three days of infection. The onset of influenza symptoms can occur on the first day after exposure. The predominant circulating viruses differ from one season to another (Faust et al., 2020). The principal virus strains are influenza A (H1N1), influenza B, and influenza A (H3N2). Therefore, people need different vaccines yearly as a protective mechanism.

Conclusion

Climate change, pollution, and pandemic threats have tremendous effects on global health. High temperatures directly contribute to respiratory complications and cardiovascular diseases. Water, air, and soil pollutions are disastrous to humans, living organisms, and the environment. Similarly, COVID-19 and influenza are dangerous to the elderly, children, and people with compromised immunity. International and local authorities reduce GHG emissions, lower pollution rates, and prepare for pandemic threats.

References

Ali, H., Zailani, S., Iranmanesh, M., & Foroughi, B. (2019). Impacts of environmental factors on waste, energy, and resource management and sustainable performance. Sustainability, 11(8), 24-43. Web.

Campbell-Lendrum, D., & Prüss-Ustün, A. (2019). Climate change, air pollution and noncommunicable diseases. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 97(2), 20- 160. Web.

Faust, J. S., & Del Rio, C. (2020). Assessment of deaths from COVID-19 and from seasonal influenza. JAMA Internal Medicine, 180(8), 1045-1046. Web.

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Guo, J., Luo, X., Tan, S., Ogunseitan, O. A., & Xu, Z. (2020). Thermal degradation and pollutant emission from waste printed circuit boards mounted with electronic components. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 382, 121-138. Web.

Hess, J., Boodram, G., Paz, S., Ibarra, S., Wasserheit, N. & Lowe, R. (2020). Strengthening the global response to climate change and infectious disease threats. The BMJ, 371, 1-5. Web.

Junk, J., Goergen, K., & Krein, A. (2019). Future heat waves in different European capitals based on climate change indicators. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(20), 39-59. Web.

Lyons, B. A., Hasell, A. & Stroud, J. (2018). Enduring extremes? Polar vortex, drought, and climate change beliefs. Environmental Communication, 12(7), 876-894.

Tong, D., Zhang, Q., Zheng, Y., Caldeira, K., Shearer, C., Hong, C. & Davis, J. (2019). Committed emissions from existing energy infrastructure jeopardize 1.5 C climate target. Nature, 572(7769), 373-377. Web.

Van Damme, W., Dahake, R., Delamou, A., Ingelbeen, B., Wouters, E., Vanham, G. & Assefa, Y. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: diverse contexts; different epidemics— how and why? BMJ Global Health, 5(7), e003098. Web.

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