Human health depends on many social factors and variables. If society is characterized by stability, a high level of citizens’ well-being, and social policy aimed at increasing life expectancy, this contributes to the health of both the individual and society. When creating a plan of care about health, each person should take these factors into account. The purpose of this work is to create a specific health model for the analyzed family, considering the social determinants of health.
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Social Determinants of Health
The family consists of three people – a father of 40 years old, a mother of 35 years old, and a 10-year-old daughter, representatives of the Native American minority. The most influential SDOH for this family is economic stability, community, and social context. Neighborhood and physical environment determinants, and food can also have an impact. Even though thanks to their bakery, the family has an adequate income for themselves, the work is exhausting for parents, especially the father. It can negatively affect his health if the family does not take care of themselves. Another determinant is the community, and the social context positively affects the health of the whole family. They mentioned that relations with friends and relatives are crucial for them. Since they have the opportunity for constant communication, they are socialized and belong to the community.
Neighborhood and physical environment also have positive health effects. The comfort of the house allows them to relax in a calm atmosphere. This determinant plays a crucial role in the girl’s health – she has her room, which is vital for a good psychological state, especially in future adolescence. The courtyard near the house makes it possible for regular outdoor walks. The last important determinant is food – the family tries to adhere to the course of proper nutrition, including grain, meat, and vegetables in the main diet. However, taking into account the problems with heart and diabetes, some changes in soda and baking consumption are needed.
To maintain health, all family members should be regularly examined by a physician and a dentist. Since this family has a history of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, they should take appropriate screenings. Those members who are exposed to diabetes should strictly regulate their diet and physical activity. If there is no disease, but a tendency to it, the most effective screening tool is a risk test (Woo et al., 2017). It will help doctors to choose a possible treatment or provide the necessary recommendations to adjust the family’s lifestyle. According to the American Heart Association (2019), the primary screening tools for cardiovascular disease prevention are blood pressure testing and a blood test for cholesterol and glucose. They are especially crucial for senior family members as the risk rises with age. There are also screening tools that each family member needs individually regularly. It is essential due to the differences in health because of the age and health of men and women.
Health Model and Plan of Action
To work with the analyzed family, two health models are necessary – the health belief model and the socio-ecological model. According to the first model, a person’s health largely depends on his or her perception of it (Simpson, 2015). That is, the family needs to get more information that soda and pastry are harmful to health, especially in a family with a history of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is also essential for the father to understand that his overburdened working day, lack of sleep, and irregular nutrition negatively affect health. The family already has an idea of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and its importance, so making changes should not cause difficulties.
According to the socio-ecological model, to understand the causes of health problems, it is necessary to refer to external factors (Simpson, 2015). Thus, the most significant modification should occur in the working life of the family. They should consider various options to reduce the burden on the father’s health. For example, they can hire an assistant, or lessen the working hours of the bakery. It will help normalize sleep and diet, which with age, becomes increasingly important for health.
Thus, the main steps in health promotion will be:
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- Checking the availability of all the necessary knowledge about the family.
- Talks about the advantages of a healthy life and the basics of diseases prevention. Presenting different ways of implementing changes in the daily routine.
- Acquaintance with the necessary exercises and screening with the doctor.
- Tracking progress.
The primary communication strategy is to find and develop the necessary materials about cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, lack of sleep, constant fatigue, essential physical exercises, and health screenings.
Thus, today the family as a part of society has a dominant role in the formation of a healthy lifestyle. It is the primary environment where useful habits are formed, and harmful ones are rejected. The first impressions of a child related to the performance of a specific action are drawn from the domestic routine. By eliminating the risk factors for the development of various diseases, observing the correct diet, correcting work and rest schedules, people can extend their lives for many years. A healthy lifestyle is available to everyone, and a health-promotion plan that takes into account all factors and determinants will make it more effective.
American Heart Association. (2019). Heart-health screenings. Web.
Simpson, V. (2015). Models and theories to support health behavior intervention and program planning. Health and Human Sciences. Web.
Woo, Y. C., Lee, C. H., Fong, C., Tso, A., Cheung, B., & Lam, K. (2017). Validation of the diabetes screening tools proposed by the American Diabetes Association in an aging Chinese population. PloS one, 12(9), 1-9.