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Students With Learning Disabilities: Educational Strategy

Setting

Setting for the survey is the High School. Students of this category is one of the most interesting categories for social research, as it is the least homogenous stratum of the society on the one hand, and it is the most solidly united on the other. Originally, students are open for surveys, they eagerly tell their opinion and they are not afraid of telling out any point of view.

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High school students often provide the unusual views of the problems, and studying of this category provides clear understanding on the probable future, which belongs to them. They are the favorable background for social experiments and testing innovative social models. That is why the students are often selected as probationers and as researchers, as only high school students may clearly realize the motivations and the aims of their mates.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of the research is to define the factors which indicate students with learning disabilities have academic skills deficits in mathematics. The aim is also to define the strategies that would help to enhance math skills within these students. As this survey requires a special approach, the elaboration of such an approach would be another aim, which is preliminary.

Research questions

  • What are contributing factors that indicate students with learning disabilities have academic skills deficits in mathematics?
  • What are strategies that can be implemented to enhance mathematics skills of students who have learning disabilities)?

Sampling Strategy

The creation of the sampling strategy for social research is as important as the research question itself. Well defined strategy which is created on an unbiased basis can offer unprejudiced and solid results. There is a strong tendency within a particular background to take into account that the sampling strategy for social research is required to be strictly defined and well framed in order not to ask unnecessary questions. In order to define this strategy, the researcher should ask the questions, which help to shape the frames of the sampling strategy. The questions are the following:

  • What are the research objectives?
  • What is the target population?
  • How many qualified researchers are available to work on the project?
  • What sampling technique(s) should be employed?
  • What data collection methods should be employed?
  • What size should the sample be?
  • How should potential respondents / participants be recruited?

Defining the strategy, it is quite necessary to realize that probability sampling is inappropriate for this type of research, as in probability sampling members of the research group (probationers) are chosen randomly, while the offered research has strictly defined audience for research. (Schulte, 2001)

Convenience sample is the most suitable type of sampling strategy, as this strategy guarantees sufficient confidence level; moreover, it requires an essential level of respondent selection: not everyone is suited for the required research. As for the questionnaire, it is necessary to mention that the intensity and length of the required interview is required to be well defined and strictly framed, as numerous factors should be taken into account: political correctness is one of the most essential while interviewing disabled people. People with learning disabilities should be interviewed with an individual approach to everyone in order not to bore or scare them.

The rationale for the sampling strategy would entail the selection of the necessary audience, evaluation of their knowledge level and defining of the kind of learning disability and the reason of this disability (i.e. what is the key problem of difficulties while studying). (Leong, 2005)

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Population/sample size will directly depend on the audience of the research (the amount of respondents), the reasons defined in the previous rationale.

Rationale for the process

The rationale for the research process includes all the experience which is required for arranging socialistic research. The fact is that people with learning disabilities are not easy to study, as their behavior is often difficult to foretell. The strategies, which should be defined during the study will have essential significance not only for these disabled people, but also for further research, consequently, there should be the question raised for the further research. Definition of the strategy requires psychological, pedagogical, medical and social experience, as only combining these several components the interviewer will be able to hold successful research. (Nicholas, 2005)

It is also necessary to mention that the process of the research should not differ from one defined in the sampling strategy; as such violations may result in informational distortion. Students with learning disabilities should be required to reply to all the questions honestly, and it is necessary to explain to them that it would help them, and their followers, to learn new information easier. (Thomas, 2003)

The instances of similar research, which are described in literature, often discover the fact that interviewers should also be trained to deal with disabled people, however, it is necessary to take into account that patterns should be avoided. Interviewer should be aware of possible difficulties; consequently, he or she should be ready to overcome them. Another point which is essential is that such students are more responsive, if the survey is arranged in a playing form. (Tabassam, 2002)

References

Bradley, R., Danielson, L., & Hallahan, D. P. (Eds.). (2002). Identification of Learning Disabilities: Research to Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bursuck, W. D., Rose, E., Cowen, S., & Yahaya, M. A. (1989). Nationwide Survey of Post Secondary Education Services for Students with Learning Disabilities. Exceptional Children, 56(3), 236

Cambridge, P. & Carnaby, S. (Eds.). (2005). Person Centred Planning and Care Management with People with Learning Disabilities. London: Jessica Kingsley.

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Deno, S. L., Fuchs, L. S., Marston, D., & Shin, J. (2001). Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Establish Growth Standards for Students with Learning Disabilities. School Psychology Review, 30(4), 507

Evans, B. (2007). A Preliminary Investigation of Placement and Predictors of Success for Students with Learning Disabilities in University-Required Mathematics Courses. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 29(1), 1

Jimenez Gonzalez, J. E., & Garcia Espinel, A. I. (2002). Strategy Choice in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: Are There Differences between Students with Learning Disabilities, G-V Poor Performance and Typical Achievement Students?. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(2), 113

Kameenui, E. J., Chard, D., & Lloyd, J. W. (Eds.). (1997). Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1995). The Nature of Learning Disabilities: Critical Elements of Diagnosis and Classification. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Klassen, R. (2002). A Question of Calibration: A Review of the Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(2), 88

Lee Swanson, H., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of Learning Disabilities. New York: Guilford Press.

Leong, N. (2005). Beyond Breimhorst: Appropriate Accommodation of Students with Learning Disabilities on the SAT. Stanford Law Review, 57(6), 2135

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Lloyd, J. W., & Hallahan, D. P. (2005). Going Forward: How the Field of Learning Disabilities Has and Will Contribute to Education. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(2), 133

Malin, N. (Ed.). (1995). Services for People with Learning Disabilities. New York: Routledge.

Mitchell, D., Traustadóttir, R., Chapman, R., Townson, L., Ingham, N., & Ledger, S. (Eds.). (2006). Exploring Experiences of Advocacy by People with Learning Disabilities: Testimonies of Resistance. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Morocco, C. C., Hindin, A., Mata-Aguilar, C., & Clark-Chiarelli, N. (2001). Building a Deep Understanding of Literature with Middle-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24(1), 47.

Nicholas, K. R., Menchetti, B. M., & Nettles, S. M. (2005). An Exploratory Investigation of Structured Writing Strategy Training for African-American College Students with Learning Disabilities. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 36(1), 37

Schulte, A. C., Villwock, D. N., Whichard, S. M., & Stallings, C. F. (2001). High Stakes Testing and Expected Progress Standards for Students with Learning Disabilities: A Five-Year Study of One District. School Psychology Review, 30(4), 487

Speece, D. L. & Keogh, B. K. (Eds.). (1996). Research on Classroom Ecologies: Implications for Inclusion of Children with Learning Disabilities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Stage, F. K., & Milne, N. V. (1996). Invisible Scholars: Students with Learning Disabilities. Journal of Higher Education, 67(4), 426

Stone, C. A., & Doane, J. A. (2001). The Potential for Empirically Based Estimates of Expected Progress for Students with Learning Disabilities: Legal and Conceptual Issues. School Psychology Review, 30(4), 473

Swanson, H. L. & Keogh, B. (Eds.). (1990). Learning Disabilities: Theoretical and Research Issues. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Tabassam, W., & Grainger, J. (2002). Self-Concept, Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Students with Learning Disabilities with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25(2), 141

Tanguay, P. B. (2002). Nonverbal Learning Disabilities at School: Educating Students with NLD, Asperger Syndrome and Related Conditions. London: Jessica Kingsley.

Terrill, M. C., Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2004). SAT Vocabulary Instruction for High School Students with Learning Disabilities. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(5), 288

Thomas, D., & Woods, H. (2003). Working with People with Learning Disabilities: Theory and Practice. London: Jessica Kingsley.

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