As the progressively evolving phenomenon in computer science, artificial intelligence is aimed at machine learning and providing software to address the problems in a way similar to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence facilitates the process of digitization and its impact on the further development of traditional companies. High-tech leading companies and corporations, involving government, the business community, and society are commonly using such an extensive branch of computer science that complements key technologies and creates new business models. Therefore, it is essential to examine the significance of artificial intelligence in the IT industry based on its pivotal role, as well as evaluate its priority in the strategic and operational approaches of the companies’ business.
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Defining the Issue
Considering the enhancement of cognitive technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) has a transformative effect on the business industry in general. According to Brynjolfsson and McAfee (2017), the effects of AI will be intensified shortly in the following areas, such as “manufacturing, retailing, transportation, finance, health care, law, advertising, insurance, entertainment, and education” (p. 4). Besides, it will concern practically every industry by transforming its key processes and business models to benefit from machine learning. Therefore, the biggest advancements of the artificial intelligence include perception and cognition with the speech as the most practical advance (Brynjolfsson and McAfee, 2017).
It is still an evolving innovation; however, voice recognition already is being widely used with such applications as think Siri, Alexa, and Google Assistant. Furthermore, face-recognizing on Facebook, the fingerprint system of an app running on the smartphone, or vision systems in self-driving cars are as well rapidly improving. Image recognition is also substituting ID cards at corporate headquarters (Brynjolfsson and McAfee, 2017). Other yet valuable improvements in artificial intelligence involve cognition and problem-solving. These advances altogether are fundamental approaches in a modern technology-based society, although the application of the systems based upon AI is still limited.
Societal Benefit of AI
The successful implementation of artificial intelligence might have a beneficial impact on humanity. In terms of computer science, high-assurance systems are required for a secure guarantee of its reliability, meaning that autonomous systems behave as expected. Russell, Dewey, and Tegmark (2015) provide research on studying different ways of AI system’s failures of its performance according to different areas of robustness research, including “verification, validity, security, and control” (p. 107). They are designed for proving the satisfactory levels, avoiding unwanted behaviors and consequences, preventing “intentional manipulation by unauthorized parties”, and facilitating relevant human control over AI system accordingly (Russell et al., 2015, p. 107). Consequently, a verification theorem was provided to address the failures avoidance.
Implementation of AI by Leading Companies
Artificial intelligence is considered the most crucial technology of general-purpose nowadays. Bala (2019) notes that venture capital company CB reported that by 2016, “Apple, Google, Intel, Microsoft, Twitter, and other top IT companies have purchased more than 125 start-up companies working on AI” (p. 474). Thus, AI and intelligent devices that do not involve human intervention are massively implemented by the global leaders on the market and have both positive and negative impacts on society. First, it is vital to analyze the positive effects of artificial intelligence in terms of some AI-based systems to perform functions intelligently.
One of the most commonly used examples of AI is Apple’s personal assistant Siri, “the friendly voice-activated computer” (Bala, 2019, p. 475). Siri’s beneficial impact lies in simplifying the information search, providing directions to perform various tasks, sending messages to selected recipients, adding important notes and dates to calendars with the reminder option. Bala (2019) states that Siri might be seen as an “artificial intelligent digital personal assistant” since it applies machine-learning technology to engage with humans (p. 475). Besides, this technology can also understand and react to requests made by Apple users.
Another popular AI system is Alexa, introduced by Amazon as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Alexa as well understands and follows the instructions given by its users within an office or a room, which made it one of the most demanded products. It can search for information online, provide assistance in shopping, as well as in multiple everyday tasks’ organization. Therefore, it helps people with limited mobility and enhances smart homes.
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In addition, the world’s technological leader in the car industry, Tesla, has “high predictive capabilities, self-driving features, and safety features”, controlled by AI system (Bala, 2019, p. 475). Amazon is using Rekognition that promotes the analysis of a vast amount of images every day, and highly advanced transactional AI that improves its predictive algorithms permanently. Besides, Amazon developed the process of predicting future acquisitions based on customers’ online behavior. Netflix uses the same AI approach to identify the right kind of film for its users based on their reactions to the previously watched films. Hence, these are just several examples of AI implementation with a positive impact on society amongst multiple cases.
Apart from the beneficial outcomes, AI-based systems also have specific negative effects. According to Bala (2019), this implies loss of jobs, loss of control, and unforeseen consequences. This can be explained by the capability of AI to replace the jobs that can now be automated, which leads to dramatic changes in the future of the employment system. Furthermore, 77% of customers are using AI-based products and services, and 44% of these do not even realize they are using artificial intelligence (Bala 2019). Nonetheless, based on the broad application of AI, it is rightly considered as an essential investment approach in marketing that results in labor productivity enhancement and effective use of the company’s resources.
Business Benefits of Artificial Intelligence
Cognitive technologies are commonly used to advance the work performance only machines can do. Davenport and Ronanki (2018) demonstrate statistical measures based on the survey of 250 executives whose companies integrate cognitive technologies to learn their goals for AI initiatives. Hence, the highest percentage of AI benefits included the enhancement of the features, functions, and performance of the company’s products, as well as optimization of internal business operations. AI technologies also provide more free time for workers to be more creative by automating tasks, and promote making better decisions.
Other beneficial factors involve creating new products, pursuing new markets, capturing and applying limited knowledge, optimizing external processes such as marketing and sales, and reducing headcount through automation (Davenport and Ronanki, 2018, p. 6). Furthermore, Makridakis (2017) states that innovative breakthroughs, technologies, and their usage, managing people, growth by acquisition, are all the inherent parts of the successful, dominant firm of AI revolution and its management. Such uniqueness of the AI technologies lies in their ability to “supplement, substitute, and amplify” virtually all the tasks performed by human beings (Makridakis, 2017, p. 55).
This trend has critical consequences for companies that pursue considerable productivity improvements so they can remain competitive on the current market; however, it as well jeopardizes the unemployment rates that are increasing.
AI and Database Technologies
The integration role of AI and Database (DB) technologies is highly significant for the future generation of computing based on the IIS (Intelligent Information Systems). As such, this integration might be beneficial to the infrastructure for science and technology, as well as to business and humanitarian purposes of computer systems by advancing its state (Brodie, 2014). Thus, in terms of future computing technologies, AI and DB must cooperate together and with other technological advances. According to Brodie (2014), future systems will involve a vast number of “heterogeneous, distributed agents” with multiple options to work together (p. 623).
This implies personal knowledge and reasoning schemes, languages, and abilities for every agent. Moreover, all the information and processes might be exchanged and create a “massive distributed information base” (Brodie, 2014, p. 623). Besides, this interconnection strategy is expected to grow into the Intelligent Interoperability, as the intelligent cooperation of the systems to pursue common goals. As a result, it is crucial for AI people to comprehend the opportunities of database technologies, as well as for DB people to know the demands of AI systems for the efficient integration process.
To conclude, artificial intelligence is the unique phenomenon that is being massively implemented by various industries, including the Information Technology sector. With its advances in perception and cognition, as well as the ability to replace a significant amount of work previously performed by humans, it rightly takes a leadership role in the future of computing systems. By analyzing the societal benefit of AI, as well as the strategies to avoid pitfalls and failures of AI-based technologies, it is more likely to be better acknowledged in its positive and negative effects.
While this trend is still evolving, it is too far in advance to search for alternatives, as the main alternative is human intelligence. By noting the substantial uncertainty about the future impact of AI technologies, there is still a question of whether they can fully replace human intelligence in the future and be beneficial or harmful for society. Nevertheless, in the near future, AI will not replace the managers but will replace those who do not implement the AI-based technologies.
Bala, D. (2019). Artificial intelligence and its implications for future. Research Review International Journal of Multidisciplinary, 4(5), 474–477. Web.
Brodie, M. (2014). Future intelligent information systems: AI and database technologies working together. In Mylopoulos, J., & Brodie, M. (Eds), Readings in Artificial Intelligence and Databases (pp. 623–643). San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2017). The business of artificial intelligence. Harvard Business Review, 1–20. Web.
Davenport, T., & Ronanki, R. (2018). Artificial intelligence for the real world. Harvard Business Review, 1–10. Web.
Makridakis, S. (2017). The forthcoming artificial intelligence (AI) revolution: Its impact on society and firms. Futures, 90, 46–60. Web.
Russell, S., Dewey, D., & Tegmark, M. (2015). Research priorities for robust and beneficial artificial intelligence. AI Magazine, 36(4), 105–114. Web.
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