A home is a space used either permanently or semi-permanent by an individual, family, or group. A home can be semi-sheltered or fully sheltered and contain both interior and exterior aspects (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948). For instance, homes provide shelter and rooms for domestic activities such as sleeping, preparing food, eating, hygiene, and leisure activities. The physical forms of home are static such as a house, trailer, and yurt (Kathy et al., 2012) This aspect of homes can vary across scales, from the micro-scale, which suggests the intimate space of the individual dwelling and his surrounding area to the macroscale, including the geographic surroundings such as the city, country, or planet. Many countries have their principles of constitutional law which are related to the right to privacy and suggest that a home is an individual’s place of refuge and shelter. This concept of homes has been researched, theorized, and put in many social disciplines, ranging from the typical idea of homes, the interior, the psyche, liminal space, gender, and politics. The topic of home can help understand self-challenge perception and the extension of self.
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Residence does not necessarily mean home, home generally means the physical space and the psychological and emotional relationship, this brings us to the idea that memory, activity, and familiarity are essential factors in creating a good home (Menter et al., 2013). Apart from being a space for domestic activities, 21st century has brought new meaning due to the advancement of technology, this has resulted in multiple activities being performed at home. The home indistinct the domestic, professional, and leisurely boundaries and has conceptually become an amorphous space.
As just a concept, the home has expanded beyond the everyday environment as just a contemporary lifestyle, and advances in technology defined how the population in the world lives and works. It now encompasses more spheres of life than ever before, in part due to the advent of information technology and the improved opportunities for performing a variety of tasks in one’s home.
Early in history, humans inhabited homes that were naturally occurring features like the caves. In the past, those primitive humans have made use of caves. In history, those primitive humans have made use of caves. The fossils of the earliest humans were found in a series of caves in South Africa (Walker, Les 1998). The caves sites included the Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai and Malapa. These caves have provided a range of human species dating back to more than one million years ago. Although it is not a general thought that these early humans used to live in caves, they might as well have been brought into the shelters by the carnivores that had killed them.
The creature considered to be the first known hominid was discovered in Africa in 1924 There is a lot of other evidence for other early human species that inhabited the caves over one3 million years ago. These pieces of evidence are distributed all over the world. For instance, Homo erectus was discovered in China, Homo rhodesiensis, in South Africa at the cave of Hearths, and Homo heidelbergensis, in Europe. Over time, people have spread throughout the planet, and evidence of past human life has been found on all continents.
In Southern Africa, the early modern people mostly used sea caves as shelter starting about 180000 years ago after learning about sea exploitation for some time. One of the oldest known sites for sea caves is the PP13B, located at an innate point. In Australia, Southern Africa, and Europe, the early modern humans used rock shelters and caves as a site for rock arts. Some other caves were used for shelters, while others were used for burials or religious sites. The sacred caves of Crete were considered sacred for religious purposes. With that said, the meaning which was attributed to a cave was associated with its specific location and history rather than the concept of the cave itself.
As the revolution progressed, technology advanced, and humans, together with hominids, started constructing their dwellings. They built huts and longhouses, which have been used for a living since the late Neolithic. Over time, they became increasingly more complex, using advanced materials with superior resilience and a variety of useful properties, ultimately arriving at the current concept of a house.
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A house is a structure that acts as a home for humans, varying from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic to complex systems of wood or bricks which contain the electric connection to plumbing ventilation. Most modern houses will have a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, and living room. Traditionally, cattle and chickens used to share the same place with humans. The household is the social unit that lives in a house. In many cases, a household is a family unit of some kind, or it may also be a social group of individuals. The structure and design of homes are also subject to changes as a consequence of globalization and urbanization. The culture of the people may also influence patterns and style of building of domestic space.
A terraced house is a medium-density housing style where the mirror-image places share side walls, while semi-detached housing consists of two houses built side-by-side and sharing a party wall with mirrored layouts. The purpose of doing so is to save costs on land and building while still providing adequate accommodations for two families.
An apartment is a self-contained unit of a building that covers only one part. This type of building may also be called an apartment house. When it has many apartments for rent, it is referred to as a Mansion block. These apartments may be owned by an owner, leasehold tenure, or rented. The largest advantage of an apartment is the increased population density that it enables, letting numerous people live on a single plot of land.
A homestead consists of the dwelling of the people—most of the time, a farmhouse, buildings, and land facilities for domestic animals. Contrary to apartments, the population density they enable is much lower, though this also means that they may be much more comfortable in terms of personal space.
Occupants of a home may be individuals, families, households, or even several families in a particular tribe. Occupants may also be a group of people such as in nursing homes or children in an orphanage. Some domestic animals may also live alongside humans due to some reasons. As such, the occupants of a home can represent a wide variety of relationships, from close familial times to have no association whatsoever.
Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted in 1948 by the United Nations General Assembly, has the following texts concerning housing and quality of living: (“Universal Declaration of Human Rights”, n.d.).”Everyone has a right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family including food, clothing, housing, and medical care.” Most nations adhere to these articles and seek to provide their people with some form of accommodation, aiming to prevent them from becoming homeless. However, the problem is still challenging to address, and homeless people exist throughout the world.
United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs, in 2004, defined a homeless household as a household that lacks shelter and would end up living in quarters. These people carry their few possessions with them, and they sleep in the streets or piers. At United Nations Economic Commission for Europe conference held in 2009, European statisticians recommended that homeless people are classified into two groups.
- Primary homeless-In this group consists of those people living on the streets without a shelter and would fall within the scope of living as quarters.
- Secondary homeless-This group refers to those with no usual residence place, and they frequently move into different types of accommodation. This group also includes those people who live in private dwellings, but report no usual address on the census form.
According to a 2005 report, 100 million people globally were estimated to be homeless.
Importance of home
There is no place like home no matter how humble it is.” Where home is, there is where the heart belongs.” This expression shows that home is desirable and is where the mind’s eye exists as much as it is in a physical location (Marean et al., 2007). For centuries, people have created homes for their families and those they care about across cultures. Lately, people have evolved to be home nesters, home builders, and homemakers.
Home has become a shelter, gathering place, sanctuary, and escape from the world’s busyness and intrusiveness. Most written works and cultural products have made the home their subject. Many people understand the concept of home as a source of positive feelings. However, on paying immediate investigation into the matter, none of this is true. The central idea of homes varies in different communities, and other people have mixed emotions regarding the relationship they have with the home.
According to many people, home is loving and provides a supportive environment for growing and discovering oneself. In life, one will have more than one family, and if the original family was unhappy, one still has a chance with another family to create happiness. These may be hard for those who have a terrible experience with their families. However, as much as the home provides a suitable environment, it is a platform to negotiate our rights and make compliments. It is also a place where we seek empowerment through self-affirmation.
On the better side, many immigrants are welcomed into new countries to stay for some time, and most of them have made their lives successful and rewarding. These people have also broadened the culture of their homeland. However, we are collectively making our first steps towards appreciating the Earth as our ultimate home and a place that we all have an obligation of respecting and protecting. Thinking about home takes my thoughts to my inner self and encourages viewing things in their totality.
The psychological significance of homes
A home is usually close to the owner’s heart, and it can become a prized possession. However, it has been argued that the most robust sense of home usually coincides with the geographical dwelling (Marean et al., 2007). Mainly, the importance of home attenuates when one moves away from home. But when one remains in a fixed position, he does not have the sense.”Human beings are considered creatures of habits when one is at home, and it has a physiological influence on their behavior, emotions, and generally their psychology. Many people usually become homesick when they are away from home for an extended period. When at home, it is easy for one to have self-reflection, and thoughts on your future or who you will become. However, these thoughts may occur when in a place of historical identity.
The home is so advantageous because no matter the situation, we go for reference for better or for worse by the presence or absence, in memory, feelings, and imaginations. One should find their home to be the most comfortable place in their life and measure the environments they encounter by its standards. Family is also a link that connects us to the world.
Challenges at home
Homes may be lost due to the occurrence of natural disasters such as fraud, war-related destructions, and in case of a relationship breakdown (Bibcode, 2007). Other reasons include legislation decisions, foreclosure to pay loans, or even being taken by landlords. Jurisdiction-dependent means may also lead to loss of home due to unpaid taxation of the property and corruption, especially in failed states (Olsen, Brad, 2004). The development of mental illness or severe physical attack without having affordable domestic care usually leads to a change of home.
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Arguments at home
There are always nasty fights at home, which ruin the environment for everyone. These fights usually crack up the relationship and frustrate people as well (Boland et al., 2020). Sometimes at home is how people argue instead of what they are arguing about.
Balancing home and work
Life sometimes is said to be unfair, and you have to give up on your home to accomplish your dreams. When someone does this, it becomes hard for the family to understand the decision, and it creates a bad atmosphere at home for everyone. Environments, where a family member spends more of their time and attention on work rather than at home, are prone to becoming dysfunctional and developing significant problems.
Getting the home organized
It is hard to get home organized, and there are people and tasks which need to be taken care of at home. This requires someone to seek an intelligent solution to manage the chores and make a routine to keep everyone around motivated.
Lack of proper communication
It is fine when you want to make yourself clear to the other member of the family. However, this practice should not be taken at home, when there is miscommunication among family members, many things go wrong. If people at a particular home are not good at communication, then that home cannot grow.
Being far from home
When you are not near your home, it is usually considerable stress for you. Especially during the workdays when one is away from home is significant stress. When you are away from home and working, you will not get someone who will give you help like the one acquired from family members (Schoenauer, 2000).
Divorce in the family
Divorce destroys the home. It is one of the ugliest home issues. The home structure is usually disturbed by this and may lead to one losing a home or both. You must be there for your family and give them an ear or a shoulder to cry on to secure residence.
A home is a significant part of someone’s life. That’s why it is always considered as part of basic needs. They give people a sense of belonging and security. The house is the structure, that protects everyone from any external factor. Therefore, every home needs a place to obtain part of its meaning and purpose.
Cultural practices may determine the way a house is built. A single home may contain one or more than one person (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 2018). Homelessness is another factor affecting many nations where many people lack shelter, and they end up living on either streets or piers. Homes act as our refuge and a hideout from the outside. This makes homes to be so much close to our hearts, thus becoming part of us. It is at home where one can negotiate their rights and have their voices heard. It has also been confirmed the connection that is there between our psychology and home. The link is felt when one is far away from home. In our homes, we also face challenges, but this does not make it any less critical since the house is a necessity and part of us.
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