## Abstract

An industrial operations analysis plays a critical role in assessing the efficient operations of its different units. The following report presents detailed information addressing the prevailing circumstances of the fire suppressing and the Hydrostatic and hydraulics system of Acme Manufacturing Co. As an industrial assessor, the organization of BSCI must be tasked with the role of supervising the operational efficiency of the fire suppressing system and hydrostatic and hydraulics piping system. BSCI finally must put forward its recommendation for Acme’s organization to improve its working conditions in consideration of its present operational functions in its entire piping system. The report is therefore aimed at improving the internal operations of the Acme Company in managing its hydrostatic as well as hydraulics piping system. After having observed the environment in which all the industrial operations of Acme Manufacturing Company are conducted, it was necessary to present the following report of a physical examination of different company’s piping systems.

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## Unit 6 Hydrostatics and Hydraulics Report

Analyzing a firm’s industrial operations is critical in ascertaining whether its operations meet the recommended operational industrial guidelines. In most cases, the preliminary assessments are poorly conducted due to the desire to have projects running and generating profits. This paper identifies the operating procedures of Acme Manufacturing Company with a key focus on its fire suppression system, water storage tank, and its hydrostatic and hydraulic piping system in recommending appropriate operational standards for its efficient operations.

## Report Details

### Piping System Repair

The fuel gas piping and the gaseous hydrogen piping were poorly erected. For instance, these fluids are commonly known for their high corrosive nature and yet were transported in corrosive steel conduits. The pipes’ size for transporting the fluid gases was also relatively small and thereby generating high fluid velocity was at 10ft/s above the recommended standard of 8.5 ft./s (Yates, 2015). In other cases, the in-house piping within the power plant was made from plastics, which are prone to burst and could cause fuel leakages resulting in explosions. The horizontal positioning of the piping systems for hydraulic fluids also disregarded the requirement of the piping system. These pipes ought to have been erected in a vertical position. They were similarly made from steel, which attracts corrosion when the steel surfaces contact with the water or moisture content, exposing them to corrosions. The content of the piping system was also mixed with some water content. This exposed the machines that relied on the hydraulic fuels to the corroding effects of water. The calculations for the given scenario is available in appendix C.

### Water Storage Tank

The water storage tank was maintained at an average height necessary to generate the required pressure for the water flow; however, the water tanks were connected with plastic pipes prone to bursting. The jointing of these pipes was also made from corrosive steel pipes corroded the pipes hindering the normal water flow. The calculation of velocity is as follows:

The velocity of the liquid at the outlet when draining a container or a tank is given by the following equation:

v = Cv (2 g H)^{1/2}. Understanding this equation is essential as it can make engineers apply the concept in the design, construction, or repair of different parts of the water storage systems. The calculation for the scenario is provided in appendix B.

### Fire Suppression System

The piping system was poorly positioned horizontally without considering the required standards. Instead, the pipe appears slightly erected in most of the joint piping. This contradicts the recommended guideline that requires the fire suppressor system to be erected horizontally. The adopted pipe in installing the suppressor system was at the size of 8 inch and not a 10-inch diameter pipe, creating the suppressing fluid’s velocity to be below the standard 8.5 ft./s. This attracted a high pressure rendering the pipe prone to damage. The calculations for the given scenario is available in appendix C.

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## Conclusions and Recommendations

The company needs to reinstall most of its poorly installed pipes in accordance with the industrial guidelines. The plastic and corrosive conduits must be newly fitted with non-corrosive and durable lines. The firm also needs to reduce the fluid velocity to improve the efficiency in dealing with the fluid piping. The organization must consider a moderate fluid speed in protecting the piping material from being damaged by pressure. This will also reduce the service life of this material. A higher fluid velocity creates inefficiencies, thereby attracting high energy expenses. Reducing the velocity of the fluid will also enhance the reliability of the system. Finally, the factory needs to install the piping system with a C-factor of 150 that ensures a constant smoothness throughout the flow of all fluids in managing any rises associated with friction.

## Reference

Yates, W. D. (2015). *Safety professional’s reference and study guide* (2nd ed.). CRC Press.

## Appendix A

In this case, the calculation of pressure based on the data provided is as follows:

Density of water = 1000kg/m^{3}

Pressure at the location of the pipe repair is

*P= ρhg =1000*9.81*(25*(1/3.28)) =72771.34 pa.*

## Appendix B

The velocity of the liquid at the outlet when draining a container or a tank is given by the following equation:

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v = Cv (2 g H)^{1/2}.

Where

v = outlet velocity (ft/s)

Cv = velocity coefficient (water 0.97)

g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2)

H = height (m) = 32.174 ft/s^{2}

The velocity of the fluid at fluid heights of 24 feet, 18 feet, 12 feet, and 6 feet will be 749.01072 ft/sec, 561.60 ft/sec, 374.40 ft/sec, and 187.20 ft/sec respectively.

## Explanation

For 24 ft:

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v= 0.97 * 32.174 * 24 =749.01072 ft/sec

For 18 ft:

v= 0.97 * 32.174 * 18 = 561.60 ft/sec

For 12 ft:

v= 0.97 * 32.174 * 12 =374.40 ft/sec

For 6 ft:

v= 0.97 * 32.174 * 6 = 187.20 ft/sec

## Appendix C

The calculations for the given problem are as follows:

Bernoulli’s equation is given as follows:

*p*+21*ρv*2+*ρgh*=*constant*

where *p* stands for the pressure, *ρ* is the density of the liquid, *v* represents the velocity of the fluid used, *g* is the gravitational pull, and *h* symbolizes the height from a reference point.

Thus, in points A and B, the equation can be framed as:

*p**A*+21*ρv**A*2+*ρgh**A*=*p**B*+21*ρv**B*2+*ρgh**B*+*H**L*

where *h**f* stands for head loss inside the pipe as a result of friction.

Since this problem involves a horizontally installed piping system, then

*h**A*=*h**B*, indicating that potential head is not necessary.

Thus, the new equation becomes:

*p**A*+21*ρv**A*2=*p**B*+21*ρv**B*2+*H**L* ⇒ *p**A*−*p**B*=21*ρ*(*v**B*2−*v**A*2)+*H**L*

Given,

*p**A*=55

*v**A*=7

*v**B*=8.5

*ρ*= 1.940

And,

*H**L*= *ρgh**f* =*ρg*(40 ft),

Then, by substituting the relevant values in the expression as:

*p**A*−*p**B*=21*ρ*(*v**B*2−*v**A*2)+*ρgh**f *=*ρ*[21(*v**B*2−*v**A*2)+*gh**f*]

Gives,

=(1.940)[21(8.52−72)+(1)(40)] lbf / ft^{2 }=122.705 lbf / ft^{2}

Recall,

1 psi = 144 lbf / ft^{2}

Hence,

*p**A*−*p**B*= 144122.705 ≈0.852 psi

Thus,

The residual pressure at B is given by

*p**B*= *p**A*−0.852 55−0.852=54.148 psi