A report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2001) focused on the status of HIV and AIDS in the United States from 1981 to 2000. The aim of the research, as defined in the research problem, was to determine the trend of HIV and AIDS infection in the United States. The following is the primary research question that was used in this study.
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What are the trend of HIV infection and the related deaths in the United States?
In this report, points are effectively supported using empirical data collected from various healthcare institutions in the country. The author’s objective was to determine the rate of HIV infection based on gender from 1981 to 2000. The result showed that in 1981, over 92% of the people diagnosed with the virus were men. From 1981 to 2000, the rate of infection increased considerably. Although more men than women were diagnosed with the virus, the gap continued to narrow. The report concluded that the rate at which women are getting infected with the virus was higher than that of men. This conclusion was based on the primary data collected and analyzed over the period stated above.
Evaluating the Research Methods
According to Foster and Vitale (2013), a literature review plays a very important role in informing a given study. They help a researcher to understand what previous scholars found out. In this paper, a section specifically meant for a review of literature is conspicuously missing. However, the author uses several articles to support some of the findings made from the primary research. This article was published in 2001.
As such, it may not be considered a current article. However, the issues presented here are very relevant. HIV and AIDS is still a major health issue in the United States today, just as it was in 2001. The cure for this disease is not yet known, which means that the recommendations made in this article are still relevant in terms of managing the disease. It is also true, just as stated in this report, that the rate of infection is higher among women than it is among men.
The type of research used in this study was non-experimental. As Jackson (2013) says, when dealing with human subjects, experiments can only be allowed if they do not pose any threat to the subjects. HIV is one of the deadliest viruses and its treatment is yet to be discovered. It is, therefore, almost impossible to conduct experiments on humans. When conducting research, sampling is very important, especially when the population is huge and the time or resources available are limited. In this study, sampling was not necessary.
This was government-sponsored research that focused on the entire population. Resources and time were made available to ensure that the data captured the entire population other than using a small sample. The use of the entire population was very appropriate for the study. It eliminated issues about biases that are often common when sampling a population to use in data collection.
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This research is very practical and its findings are very clear. Instead of basing their data on the studies found in secondary sources, the authors went to collect the primary data from the field. Their investigations revealed the truth about HIV trends and the fact that women are at a greater risk of getting infected with the virus than men, especially those who are engaged in adult entertainment. Their suggestions on how to deal with this problem are clear and practical. I believe that when applied correctly, these recommendations can help in fighting the spread of HIV. The best strategy is to sensitize the public about this health concern so that they have a better understanding of how to deal with it.
The study gives a clear statistical image of the trend in the spread of HIV in the United States from 1981 to 2000. However, I believe that it would have been a better report if some adjustments were to be made on it. The main improvement that the authors should have considered is having a section for the review of the literature. Reviewing the existing literature would have demonstrated to the readers that the researchers conducted background research about their issue under investigation before starting the research. It would be an indication that this report aims at addressing the existing knowledge gaps. As it is, it may not be possible to determine whether or not the existing knowledge gaps at that time were identified before conducting this study.
The writing in the article is clear and straightforward. The authors have used clear words to explain the trends in the spread of the virus and what can be done to deal with the problem. They have used numerical data to help bring out their points. In this report, the use of graphs and charts makes it easy for the researcher to comprehend information in its condensed form. The report also uses maps to help the readers understand the prevalence of HIV at the global level.
Further research is needed on this subject because HIV is still a major concern today just as it was over thirty years ago when it was first discovered. Medical researchers still need to find ways of treating this disease. Vaccination is also necessary to eliminate or reduce the rate of transmission. Social scientists also need to conduct further research on how to deal with the socio-economic impact of HIV and AIDS, and the social programs that can be implemented to reduce the spread. Given that this report was published about 15 years ago, some discoveries have been made in the field of medicine and the approach taken in handling this problem is changing. As such, further investigations would be necessary.
The article analyzed in this paper gives the trend in the spread of HIV in the United States from 1981 to 2000. The report clearly shows that when the initial study about the virus and its prevalence in the country was conducted, it was found that about 92% of the reported cases were men. However, since then it is evident that women are getting infected with the virus at a higher rate than men. The study clearly shows the reasons why women are more vulnerable to the spread of the virus than men. The use of the entire population and the fact that it was conducted by an institution fully funded by the government makes the findings reliable. The authors of this report have used charts, graphs, figures, tables, and maps to make their reports easy to understand.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). HIV and AIDS — United States, 1981–2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(21), 430-456.
Foster, C. S., & Vitale, A. T. (2013). Diagnosis and treatment of uveitis. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical.
Jackson, A. C. (2013). Viral infections of the human nervous system. New York, NY: Springer.