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Type II Diabetes: Pathophysiology, Initial Signs, Symptoms,

Pathophysiology associated with Type 2 Diabetes

Type II Diabetes results from insufficient insulin in the blood (Nolan, Damm & Prentki, 2011). In the pathophysiology of the disease, there are two conditions related to it. For example, patients suffer from increased resistance to insulin and impaired insulin secretion (Nolan et al. 2011). Some patients experience one of the two conditions. On the contrary, others suffer from the two. Insulin resistance leads to a condition known as metabolic syndrome that defines the direction that the illness takes (Nolan et al., 2011). Mostly, Type II Diabetes results from genetic orders because several genetic factors contribute to the development of the condition (Nolan et al., 2011). However, the real cause of passing it from one generation to another comes from the abnormal molecular composition that the people hold. Environmental factors also have a say in the development of the condition. According to doctors and researchers, aging and obesity act as the main factors to the development of Type II Diabetes (Nolan et al., 2011). Other conditions include insufficient energy consumption, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption. Impaired insulin secretion enhances the development of the disease because it has a progressive nature (Nolan et al.i, 2011). In the process, glucose control is affected, which leads to glucose toxicity.

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Initial Signs, Symptoms, and Type of Vascular Changes that occur Early in Type II Diabetes

People suffering from Type II Diabetes have similar symptoms. However, the extent differs depending on how far the disease has progressed. On the other hand, some of the patients may experience all the symptoms and signs while others may not. Having wounds that take a long time to heal acts as the main symptom (Inzucchi et al., 2012). If a person suffers from prolonged healing, he should test for Type II Diabetes as early as possible. Insulin insufficiency and resistance lead to dry eyes (Inzucchi et al., 2012). When the condition happens, patients experience blurred vision. In addition, patients experience unusual tiredness or fatigue that does not seem to go away (Inzucchi et al., 2012). The fatigue comes along with increased thirst and frequent urination (Inzucchi et al., 2012). Other rare but first symptoms include unexplained weight loss and itching in one’s private area. In some situations, thrush accompanies the itching (Inzucchi et al., 2012). Metabolic abnormalities develop, causing overproduction and overreaction of oxygen in the body. On the other hand, endothelial dysfunction also occurs because of the presence of Type II Diabetes in the body.

Vascular Changes that Occur with More Advanced Disease

In advanced Type II Diabetes, diabetic retinopathy is among the vascular conditions associated with the illness (Inzucchi et al., 2012). The situation leads to complicated vascular issues, including the peripheral retina and the macula (Nolan et al., 2011). In the process, abnormal vessels appear to complicate retina functioning. In addition, advanced Type II Diabetes through vascular changes enhances vision loss. Another vascular disorder in the advanced stage of the disease affects the neuropathy order of the body (Nolan et al., 2011). Severe renal dysfunction comes from the development of the condition that attributes to increased urination and microalbuminuria presence in the body. According to research studies, microvascular conditions cause more than 70% of deaths in patients suffering from Type II Diabetes (Inzucchi et al., 2012). Thus, in the advanced stage of the disease, the conditions develop. Other vascular complications include cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery diseases, among others (Inzucchi et al., 2012). All these conditions increase the chances of patients dying because of their severity. However, patients start to receive treatment in the early stages as a way of preventing the condition from moving to the advanced stage.

References

Inzucchi, S. E., Bergenstal, R. M., Buse, J. B., Diamant, M., Ferrannini, E., Nauck, M.,… & Matthews, D. R. (2012). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes care, 35(6), 1364-1379.

Nolan, C. J., Damm, P., & Prentki, M. (2011). Type 2 diabetes across generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and management. The Lancet, 378(9786), 169-181.

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