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Type II Diabetes: Treatments

This is a chronic disease that results from a high level of glucose or sugar within the blood. This disease also arises from the body’s inability to produce and utilize insulin effectively. Insulin is important within the body because it enhances the transportation of glucose to various body cells for storage. The stored glucose is later used as a source of energy by the body. High sugar levels build up in the blood when glucose fails to enter the cells, a situation referred to as hyperglycemia.

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Explain the medication and how they affect diabetes

Metformin is the most common drug recommended for treating type II diabetes. This drug lowers blood glucose levels by reducing the production of insulin. It also enhances glucose absorption. Some of the side effects which may result from taking the drug include vomiting and diarrhea. However, this could be prevented if the drug is taken after meals.

Glipizide also lowers blood sugar levels. Its side effects include dizziness, diarrhea, and nervousness. The side effects are minor in most cases. Hydrochlorothiazide on the other hand treats both hypertension and diabetes. Some of its side effects include stomach upset dry mouth, muscle cramps, and skin rashes. Lisinopril is used to treat hypertension and has side effects such as nausea, headache, and drowsiness which are mostly mild (Medline Plus, 2009, para.2). It could also have more serious side effects such as chest pain and muscle weakness. Levothyroxine is given to treat hypothyroid by making up for natural thyroid hormone. It hardly has any side effects.

How do her hypertension, hyper-cholesterol, and hypothyroid interrelate with her diabetes?

The relationship between hypertension, hypothyroid, hyper-cholesterol, and diabetes is often complex. This arises from the fact that each of the diseases could worsen the other and also increase the chances of getting heart-related diseases. In addition, this combination may lead to the development of atheroma, a condition characterized by accumulation and swelling of lipids (cholesterol) in arteries that could result in a heart attack. These diseases may also lead to atherosclerosis which entails hardening of the arteries. The resultant effects may include blood vessel damage, stroke, or kidney failure. Hypertension is a main risk factor for the development and worsening of several diabetes complications such as diabetic eye disease and kidney disease (Medline Plus, 2009, para.6).

What explanation would you provide as to why the physician ordered the Lantus?

When adequate blood sugar control is not achieved through the administration of diabetes pills, doctors recommend Lantus which is a type of insulin. As a result, Lantus is integrated within the diabetes treatment plan. Some of the elements to be considered in the treatment plan using Lantus include exercising and taking a proper diet in addition to other forms of diabetes medication. Lantus aids in regulating blood sugar levels by removing excess glucose.

This type of insulin has the effect of reducing the amount of glucose within 24 hours after its administration. In addition, it does not have a peak that facilitates a steady and continuous release of insulin.

Brown knows there is a family history of diabetes. What other factors contribute to her diabetes?

Other factors could contribute to diabetes apart from heredity. An increase in body weight increases the probability of insulin resistance. This arises from the fact that high-fat content limits the utilization of insulin by the body. Aging is also another risk factor that increases the possibility of developing type II diabetes. The risk mainly increases at the age of 45 years (Eckman, 2009, para.3). Inactive lifestyles and lack of exercise may also contribute to one suffering from diabetes. Muscle cells have more insulin receptors compared to fat cells. Therefore, failure to exercise increases insulin resistance. Unhealthy eating habits also increase the probability of an individual suffering from diabetes. For example, meals composed of the high-fat continent, low fiber, and simple carbohydrate increases the chances of one suffering from diabetes.

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What education would you provide Ms. Brown regarding diet, exercise, and medications?

One of the ways through which an individual can minimize insulin resistance is via continuous exercising. Being involved in exercises aids in reducing blood sugar levels. This is attained by making insulin to be effective. Diabetes patients should avoid too much fat and carbohydrates in their diets. This is because high-fat content raises their cholesterol levels and worsens glucose absorption. Instead, soluble fibers are highly recommended for glucose metabolism. Fruits, oat products, beans, and vegetables are all rich in soluble fiber. Patients need to adhere to doctors’ instructions about their medication. This will aid in avoiding the worsening of their general health condition.

Educate Ms. Brown about Byetta including drug information and administration

Byetta is a drug injected to reduce the level of sugar in the blood. When taken, the drug reduces the absorption of oral drugs. Therefore, oral medicine should be taken approximately one hour before the Byetta injection (Medline Plus, 2009, para.4). However, the drug has side effects such as decreased appetite, abdominal pain, and nausea. If the side effects do not cease, the patients should seek appropriate medical attention.

What are the major complications associated with diabetes?

Even though the long-term complications associated with diabetes are developed gradually, the resultant effect can be fatal. Some of the potential complications of diabetes include neuropathy, heart diseases, kidney damage, eye damage, skin damage, hearing problems among others. In addition, diabetes can lead to blindness. This is due to the damage caused by the effect of the condition on blood vessels supplying nutrients and oxygen to the retina.

Other vision conditions which might result from diabetes include glaucoma and cataracts (Eckman, 2009, para.5). Diabetes can also lead to the patient being prone to infections arising from bacteria and fungi in addition to suffering from skin problems. Other effects of diabetes include a decline in bone mineral density. As a result, the probability of an individual suffering from osteoporosis which is a bone disease is increased and hence the risk of fractures.

Reference List

Eckman, S. (2009). Type II diabetes: Causes, symptoms and treatment. Web.

Medline Plus. (2009). Medicine and drugs: Type II diabetes. Web.

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