UGS and UAS share a commonality in their C3, which is that they can be both controlled from a ground control station (GCS). However, unlike UGVs that are remotely controlled through radio frequencies and fiber optics, UAVs are controlled via satellite links. At the time of take-off till the exit from the line of sight, UAVs are controlled with a direct data link from the GCS. Nevertheless, upon exiting the line of sight, the GCS shifts to a satellite link to control the UAV (Hosseini et al., 2018). Furthermore, unlike the typical UAV GCS that has two consoles – one for the operator and the other for the payload operator, the GCS for the UGV comprises of only one console (Armyreco, 2011).
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On the other hand, the UGV and UAV show uniqueness based on their different operational domains. Since UGVs are designed to operate on the ground, which is characterized to have substantial obstacles and varying terrains, they have been fitted LADAR sensors during autonomous navigation. These sensors enable UGV to lock to specific targets while maintaining obstacle avoidance (Armyreco, 2011). On the contrary, the UAV is only capable of avoiding obstacles when under remote control from a GCS, and this is because, with the assistance of the installed cameras, the operator can avoid obstacles (Zhang et al., 2018). Upon reaching beyond the line of sight, this proves challenging. As a result, they are regarded as a threat to safety; hence, specific policies have been implemented to regulate their flight (Zhang et al., 2018). For instance, it has delimited their minimum altitude and restricted their access to specific areas, such as airports.
Hosseini, N., Jamal, H., Haque, J., & Magesacher, T. (2018). UAV command and control, navigation and surveillance: A review of potential 5G and satellite systems. IEEE Aerospace Conference.
Zhang, X., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Guan, X., Delahaye, D., & Tang, L. (2018). Safety assessment and risk estimation for unmanned aerial vehicles operating in National Airspace System. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 2018(4731585), pp. 1-11.