Rivers are common sources of water in the world. Water is useful in various ways both domestically and in industries. It is imperative that such water remain clean and safe and free from any pollution. Unfortunately, water pollution takes place in various water bodies all over the world. This essay seeks to examine the concept of water pollution, its causes, effects and solutions to water pollution.
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Causes of Water Pollution
Water pollution refers to dirtying of water resulting in chemical, physical or biological alteration in the condition of water making such water harmful to anyone who utilizes it. In other words, pollution makes water unfit for consumption (Go Green Academy, 2013).
There are various causes of water pollution. Disposing solid waste in water sources is the main cause of water pollution (Go Green Academy, 2013). Most of these wastes are made of plastic, which by nature, is non-biodegradable. Plastics take over four hundred years to decompose in water and as such, they move in different places before they finally decompose.
Effluence from industries and factories cause water pollution (Go Green Academy, 2013). Coffee factories use fresh water to transport waste to rivers. Effluence from industrial plants adds pollutants like lead and mercury into rivers.
Oil spills from ships on transit also cause water pollution. Oil is indissoluble in water and consequently forms thick patches on water surface making it hard for organisms in such a water body to survive. Overall, such contaminated water destroys an ecosystem (Go Green Academy, 2013).
Sewerage disposal from households and commercial houses cause water pollution. In some places, sewage can be treated or recycled but in most places, such waste finds way into rivers.
Due to chemical substances used in maintaining hygiene in washrooms, effluence from such places is destructive to water sources into which it flows (Go Green Academy, 2013). Cauterizing of fossil fuels leads to building up of acidic particles in air, which in turn leads to acidic rains falling on water bodies (Go Green Academy, 2013).
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Effects of Water Pollution
Ground water polluted through use of chemicals in farming causes destruction to plants, which in turn affect human beings, and animals that feed on them (Go Green Academy, 2013).
Secondly, polluted water causes skin rashes and even cancer to swimmers. In addition, such water can cause reproductive difficulties and typhoid fever, which if untreated, leads to death. Water pollution leads to flooding when solid wastes accumulate to very high levels (Go Green Academy, 2013).
Global warming leads to increased water temperatures and this leads to destruction of aquatic plants. Coral reefs for instance suffer destruction because warm water has a discoloring effect on them.
In addition, plastic materials can easily entangle organisms such as fish leading to their suffocation and death hence reduction in available organisms for human consumption. Water polluted by oil spills also leads to death of aquatic animals (Go Green Academy, 2013).
Solutions to Water Pollution
Several measures are necessary to tackle water pollution. Relevant authorities should enforce existing regulations concerning water pollution and come up with even stricter penalty for those who pollute water (Hearn, 2013). Secondly, people should use less plastic and avoid littering by using designated dumping sites.
Farmers as well as householders should minimize the use of chemicals such as fertilizers and adopt use of environmental friendly fertility boosters like animal wastes. Since cars emit particles that lead to acidic rains, people should drive less and where possible use public transport to minimize emissions into the atmosphere (Hearn, 2013).
Go Green Academy. 2013, Causes and effects of water pollution.
Hearn, M. 2013, Solutions to water pollution.