Research writing in management is important. It is essential to master the methods and skills of doing research. In the essay, there are two parts, with the first part being an analysis of research in one of the major management sectors. In this first part, I analyze one of the literature aspects on the suitability of women for management jobs particularly in the category of human resource management. An analysis of the study is done with the various characteristics about it including the literature review, the methods, and the conclusions being discussed. The second part provides answers to some of the questions asked in the units 3, 5, and 8.
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Analysis of Literature
The analysis of appropriate literature is important to create the required skills in research writing in management. This part evaluates the suitability of managerial jobs for women and the suitability of women for the jobs. The basic finding from previous studies suggests that many female managers are not conveniently represented in the management profession business (Billing 2011, p. 299). The study uses this concept and belief to evaluate the existing mentality on the ground. The author investigates the concept of using the male gender as the standard in the management. Another thing that the essay evaluates is the observation that women managers often experience problems in the execution of managerial duties.
The study is a qualitative one. Specifically, it utilizes 40 women managers in two different countries. The author begins the paper with the statement of the problems that led to the study, with the relevant gas in the existing knowledge being studied. She cited one of the observations as the use of males as managerial norms in the literature addressing management issues, with women being left behind (Billing 2011, p. 299; Konrad & Linnehan, 1999). The use of men as the norm in the management literature means that women in the same industry have problems that are not captured by the literature.
The significance of the research according to the author is the creation of awareness of a gender gap in management, with the females being on the receiving end in the sector. Her argument was also that the use of the male gender as the norm in the management sector means that the same standards developed cannot possibly apply for both genders (Sweet, & Meiksins 2008; Haslam, 2004).
The study utilized a literature review with two general subheadings. These were the ‘male as the norm’ and ‘congruence between jobs and bodies’ (Nicholson, 1990). The literature review established some important concepts and theoretical frameworks, which were accessible in the significant works reviewed. One of the concepts that the author generates from most of the research is that the occupations including management were specifically men. These men were supposed to be the breadwinners (Billing 2011, p. 307). This theory was supported by the work by Witz and Savage (1992) whose work supported the masculine nature of most occupations including management itself.
The author managed to show a relationship between the male gender and the managerial occupation, with the traditional women being less involved in the same. However, a study that was reviewed showed a change from the past where modern women were more involved in careers than their traditional counterparts especially in Europe (Glover & Kirtin, 2006). The author also managed to find a deficit in the number of female managers as compared to their male counterparts.
The author establishes a knowledge gap in the problem under her study. He found that there existed little research on the subject and in the related areas. Some of the close literate works that she managed to correlate with the study topic include the job satisfaction for the various genders of managers and the number of managers in each gender. The types of literature used in the review include both primary and secondary sources. These she claimed provided the most information regarding the topic. Some of the primary and secondary sources used include Meyerson and Kolb (2000), Alvesson and Willmott (2002), and Eagly and Carli (2007). The author uses these studies to create a relationship between the various concepts in the research and the reviewed areas.
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Hypotheses and Research Questions
The author has several research questions that she used to guide her research. One of the research hypotheses stated is that the male is used as the norm in the management sector, with the female gender left trailing. She also states that the sector has been engendered, with the male gender dominating and dictating in numbers (Billing, 2011, p. 299). The research questions and the hypotheses stated are used to guide the study, and also inform the literature review that is carried out. The study is therefore directed towards answering the stated objectives and hypotheses. The author, for example, states that one of the literature reviewed found out that the gender of managers was important in determining their performance, and their outlook when in the management sector (Deutsch, 2007). This constituted a stereotype that helped the author to show the disparity between the male and female managers.
The statement of the hypothesis is however not made in a statement but rather as a research. Thus, it does not utilize a statistical statement in the hypothesis. Therefore, there is no null hypothesis. In the carrying out of the study, the main findings that were analyzed are those that backed the hypothesis and the research questions. This makes the research easy to follow and to analyze. The hypothesis is simple and testable, as witnessed in the study that the author carries out and can make a logical conclusion.
Sample selection should follow some basic criteria. For research to be acceptable, it should meet the minimum requirement in the form of sample size and selection. In the research under review, it is important to evaluate whether the sample selection methods were adequate and/or whether the sample size could be used to make the kind of conclusions made in the research. In the study under question, the number of participants selected from different countries was 20 (Billing 2011, p. 305). The method used to select the participants was mainly based on their occupation, with all of them being managers in different fields. Women were randomly selected, with the minimum requirement of having managerial experience and currently working as managers. Their ages were 35 to 60. They had different social backgrounds, with some being married or single while others had children.
The method used in the selection of the sample was adequate and appropriate to the design of the study. According to Williams, qualitative sampling is an effective method of carrying out sampling. It has some advantages including ease of selection of the sample (1991). The sample, as used in the study, is representative of the population under study. Women in the managerial occupation were the ones that the study focused on. The sample also fulfills the requirements in the answering of the study questions and meets the objectives of the study. The sample size used was rather small, with the size being only 20 participants. However, the number can be effectively used to make the necessary conclusions regarding the research objectives. For a sample to be significant, a researcher uses several methods to evaluate the appropriateness of the size (Hakim, 2000). These methods could be statistical. The research utilizes a sample size that is appropriate for the study. The results can be generalized to the population under study.
Research Design and Instruments
Billing (2011, p. 311) chose a qualitative study. She uses interviews for the study population to get the desired findings appropriate to make conclusions. The main reason for the study design used by the researcher is the relative ease that she had in the collection and analysis of the data. The design also allowed the direct representation of the results of the study, which was appropriate for the objectives that were laid out at the beginning of the study (Williams 1995). The design also provides an organized way of presenting the problems in the study, ensuring that these flow from the beginning to the end. In any research, it is important to select a study design that is easy to carry out and one that allows the easy answering of the research questions (Parker, 2002). The author uses a simple design to achieve her results. The design also flows from the introduction, the review of literature carried out, and even in the presentation of the findings of the study.
The author uses interviews as the main method of data collection for the study. This strategy provided her with a chance to get the experiences of the women interviewed. The data collection method ensured that she got the information concerning the stereotyped nature of careers, and she quotes Billing and Alvesson (1994) who illustrate the various stereotypes in the management and gender relations. The interviews are carried out for all the participants, with the same questions being fronted for all the participants. The author also uses standard questions to establish the significant stereotypes in the management profession. In any research, it is important to ensure that the participants are informed of their role in the study and they are thus required to provide written consent. In this particular study, there is no indication of a consent being obtained from the participants.
Data Analysis and Conclusions
The researcher analyzed the answers from the different participants. She managed to make several conclusions based on the objectives that she set at the beginning of the study. In line with the stereotypes for the management job that the literature review found, one of the conclusions was that there existed a stereotype with women being viewed as being less equipped in the management job in any industry (Billing 2011, p. 311). She concluded that there are differing views on the importance of gender in the management sector and that these depended on the culture, the line of work, and the perceptions held by the different genders about themselves and their performance on the job. The development of stereotyped was considered a significant influence on the preference of male managers for certain industries and lines of work. The research also identifies that gender categories are a major influence on the preference of certain careers, which may be a probable cause of the observed disparity (Billing 2011, p. 311).
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