Assessing Learning: Instructional Design Analysis

Introduction

Training based on competency equips learners with the skills, knowledge and understanding to display competence based on laid down standards and performance criteria that is carried out in a predetermined context (Hoogveld et al, 2005, p. 287). Competency based assessments therefore can be defined as the process through which evidence is collected and judgments made determining if competency levels that have been put in place have been achieved. The IAT1 Instructional Design Analysis sought to find out the reasons why third grade students in Racine Unified School District fail in the constructed response section of the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination (WKCE).

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Goals and Objectives

  • Goal: The main goal of this Instructional Design Analysis My main goal will be to improve the 3rd grade constructed responses in reading on the WKCE by focusing on key academic vocabulary, increase self-awareness and development of the critical thinking processes, and improve students ability to express their ideas in writing. All of which will support students abilities to be stronger learners.
  • Objective: The main objective is will be to require all third grade students of Racine Unified School District to demonstrate improvement in constructed responses in WKCE exams.
  • Goal: The second goal of this Instructional Design Analysis second will be to improve the 3rd grade constructed response in reading so the 10% of the students who scored a 0-1 on the WKCE constructed response rubric will increase by at least one point on the constructed response rubric leading to improve test scores.
  • Objective: To require all third-grade students in Racine Unified School District who had scored 0-1 on the WKCE exam to post results showing at least one point increase in constructed rubric.

Summary of characteristics

This assessment will be done on the backdrop of the information from research finding that are contained in the IAT1 Instructional Design Analysis.

  • Overall, 52.2 % of the combined population of students scored proficiently
  • 62% of economically disadvantaged students posted proficient performance in CR reading.
  • 48% of African American students scored proficiently in CR reading
  • 51% of students of Hispanic and Cuban origin scored proficiently in CR reading
  • Only 30% of students with disabilities had proficient performance.
  • 70% of Caucasian and Caucasians of Hispanic origin scored proficiently in CR reading.

Assessing Performance Objectives

The performance objectives set will be assessed through a variety of instruments. They include course-embedded assessment, performance assessment, portfolio assessment, standardized assessment and localized instruments (Argüelles & Gonczi, 2000, p. 109).

The table below gives the details of the instruments and their scoring methods, as they will be used in the assessment.

Objective Assessment Method Description Scoring Method
Students to demonstrate improvement in CR in WKCE exams Course embedded assessment
(This assessment instruments will clearly help in capturing any improvement that the students may have made within the specified period.)
  • The assessment procedures will be embedded to the courses curriculum
  • Test items like the continuous assessment tests as well as other language projects students have take are also included. They may be the tests and assignments done in class or at home
  • The course embedded assessment standards will be developed according to the school and state standards
  • The method requires the standards be used in assessing discipline specific knowledge and skills
Scoring will be done using raw scores and/or rubrics that have already been predetermined.
Localized instruments
  • This will involve the internal mechanisms that will be developed by the languages department in the individual schools.
  • The content of the instrument will be designed to match the expected outcomes.
  • Internal validation however will be necessary to ensure the success of the instrument.
Scoring will be done using the answer key and internal scores methods.
Portfolio assessment
(This method will be used in the assessment of either objective).
  • It will involve the collection of the works of the student over a specified period of time. The works will be analyzed to determine if there have been any achievements or growth.
  • The works may include student assignment done at home and/or class, data from participation in language programs and exams (both internal and WKCE)
  • This will also help the students in self-reflection as they struggle to make adjustments to their grades.
Scoring will be done through predetermined rubrics
All students who had posted a score of 0-1 are required to show improvement of their score Performance assessment
  • This assessment emphasizes the use of activities by the student to assess his/ her skills and knowledge.
  • It’s also assesses what the student can put to practice and what he/she can demonstrate as well as produce in CR learning.
  • The most important element is that it allows for the evaluation of both the process and the product of the CR learning the student has been going through.
  • The assessment may include essay tests, oral presentations, and data from projects the student has participated in.
Scoring will be done based on predetermined rubrics
Standardized assessment instruments
  • This is the assessment that will be done based on the set standards of the state. This instruments will be developed outside the schools by the state’s standardized administration
  • The assessment will be used in comparing the district’s students with the rest of the students in the state.
  • It’s however important that schools administrators cautiously use this instrument since it may not be explicitly aligned with the institution’s objectives.
Scoring will be done based on the answer key and the through testing company.

Artifact: Spreadsheet

The assessment methods used above will need various types of evidence though not in all cases. They include direct demonstration especially in portfolio assessment and course embedded assessments (Bowden & Marton, 2004, p. 48). There also include documents like performance reports that will be used by assessors and which to some extent provide clear indication on growth and improvement (Voorhees, 2002, p. 83).

The artifact will comprise of a selection of twelve weeks grades since from the beginning of evaluation. The grades will indicate the progress the student will make over the twelve weeks. The grades will be contained in a spreadsheet in which marks will be entered after every test and assignment is done. In the spreadsheets the final grade will automatically will be updated throughout the twelve weeks. The relative ease with which spreadsheets can be used to communicate with both students and teachers makes them important for this part. They are also easy to change the grades in case of a retest and/or any other correction.

Instructions

Teacher

  • Formulate and distribute 10 learning objectives for the CR course.
  • Include a portfolio assessment as one of aides that students will need in the assessment of this objectives
  • Make it clear to students what is expected from them
  • Make it mandatory that every piece of evidence must be accompanied with a self-reflection paragraph.
  • Make it clear to the learners that its up to them to clarly prove that they have mastered the learning objectives
  • Make sure you score every item of evidence as specified in the portofoliuo assessment rubric.

NB: Student instructions are contained in the student instructions document in the appendix page

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Most effective assessment

Portfolio Assessment

Portfolio assessment is better placed to comprehensively do the assessment that will measure the knowledge and the objectives that were laid out at the beginning. Through objective assessment, it will determine if the goals that were set in the previous tasks have been met (Voorhees, 2002, p. 86). The method will involve the collection of the students work over time. The collected works include written assignments that students have done in class as well as those done as homework, exams taken by the students excluding the main exam. This may be the continuous assessment tests that the teachers will use from time to time to test the level of understanding of the new skills and concepts that students are taught daily. It may also be work from programs such as remedial programs for weak learners (Voorhees, 2002, p. 88). The programs are meant to bridge the gaps in the skills that the student lacks. The works are then analyzed to determine if there is any growth and/ or achievement in the period covered by the works. This assessment method is suitable for both objectives listed above. Through the method the instructor will be able to determine if the students have made any improvement in the constructed response questions of their WKCE exams. Similarly, it will be able to through the gathered documents be able to prove if the student has increased the performance core by one point if /he/she had scored 0-1 previously.

An important element about this method of assessment is the fact that it allows for students to self reflect in the incorporated work. It ensures maximum involvement of the student in the learning and the evaluation process. The student is better able to understand the criteria used to evaluate them and position at which he/she is in the quest for better grades. It helps students to focus on the higher order thinking while pursuing improvements to their scores in constricted reading (Voorhees, 2002, p. 92).

Appendix 1

Portfolio Assessment Rubric

  • Name …………………………………………………………
  • Date ……………………………
  • Assessment Period ……………………………………..
  • Class…………………………………….
  • Assignments……………………….

Directions

Points are awarded on the basis of completeness, accuracy, and neatness. The portfolio includes items such as homework, class assignments and Continuous assessment tests. The grading is done on a scale of 1-5 where 5 is excellent and 1is poor.

Date/week Assignment Excellent Good Average Fair Poor Comments
Total

Areas which student need improvements ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………

Areas which student has improved ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………

(Courtesy: Pearson Education, Inc./Globe Fearon/Pearson Learning Group.)

Appendix 2 (Partly completed rubric)

Portfolio Assessment Rubric

  • Name: Name of student
  • Date ……………………………
  • Assessment Period: January –March
  • Class: Name of Class
  • Assignments ……………………….

Directions

Points are awarded on the basis of completeness, accuracy, and neatness. The portfolio includes items such as homework, class assignments and Continuous assessment tests. The grading is done on a scale of 1-5 where 5 is excellent and 1is poor.

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Date/week Assignment Excellent Good Average Fair Poor Comments
1 Answering CR Questions 5 Very good
2 Take home test 4 Needs improvement
3 Class work 4 Needs improvement
4
5
6

Appendix 3

Portfolio Final Self-Evaluation (Student Instructions)

Directions

This portfolio assessment will help you in assessing your completed portfolio. Review the contents of your portfolio and answer the following questions to see which goals you have met and which goals you need to continue working towards.

  1. Does my (yours) completed portfolio meet the goals you set for this unit? If the answer is yes, list the items you feel fulfill the goals and explain your choices. If your answer is no, tell why ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………
  2. Does your completed portfolio satisfactorily demonstrate the strengths and abilities you specified? If your answer is yes, list the items and tell how they demonstrate the strength or ability. If your answer is no, explain why you are not satisfied that this strength or ability has been ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………
  3. Which step in your planning chart was completed most successfully? What made this step successful? Which step proved to be the most difficult? What made this step difficult? ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………
  4.  The best thing about the work in this portfolio is ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………
  5. The most important thing I (you) learned in completing this portfolio is ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………
  6.  The thing I am (you) least satisfied about in this portfolio is ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………
  7. A goal for my (you) next portfolio will be ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………
  8. On a scale of 1 through 4, with 4 being the highest, rate the success of this portfolio ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ………………

References

Argüelles, A. & Gonczi, A. (2000). Competency based education and training: A world perspective. Mexico City: Grupo Noriega Editores.

Bowden, J.A. & Marton, F. (2004). The University of learning: Beyond quality and competence. Oxford: Routledge.

Hoogveld, A. et al. (2005). Training higher education teachers for instructional design of competency-based education: product-oriented vs. process-oriented worked examples. New York: Teaching and Teacher Education.

Voorhees, P. (2002). Creating and implementing competency-based learning models. Burlington: New Directions for Institutional Research.

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