Bipolar disorder also referred to as manic-depressive complications, is a mood or brain disorder that influences the change in personal behavior, feelings, thoughts, and perceptions that lead to abnormal shifts in an individual’s energy, mood, and ability to function (Huxley, 2002). These changes are usually different from the common down and ups that every person goes through, they are mainly caused by mania and depression (Hyman, 1999). The symptoms and signs of bipolar disorder are very rigorous and lead to broken relationships, poor school or job performance, and sometimes when very complicated can result in suicide. Fortunately, bipolar disorder is treatable, and individuals with this infirmity can lead productive and full lives.
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Early About five point seven million American citizens’ adults or an estimated two point six percent of the people age eighteen and above in any each year suffer from bipolar illness. Bipolar disorder is usually common in early adults and in people who have approached puberty. Conversely, some individuals develop their first signs and symptoms at some stage in childhood, and some have them late in adulthood. Bipolar disorder is loftily not acknowledged as an illness, and persons may have this medical condition for years before it is appropriately diagnosed and treated. Similar to heart disease or diabetes, bipolar illness is a long-standing illness that should be cautiously managed throughout an individual’s life (NIMH, 2009).
Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is known to cause spectacular mood swings—from too high to low or from happy to sad and hopeless, and vice versa, frequently in between periods of normal mood is experienced. Bipolar disorder starts with a very acute phase of signs and symptoms and thereafter is followed by a recurred track of relapse and remission. Relapses are a course of episodes characterized by very severe symptoms; taking about three to six months. These Episodes are depressive, hypomanic, manic, or a combination of manic depressive episodes. Psychotic symptoms might also be manifested (MFMER, 2008).
Bipolar one disorder is distinct by the alternation of full-blow manic and main depressive episodes. Depression is first commonly manifested followed by Depression which can occur instantaneously before or after mania, or mania and depression can occur differently by months or years.
Bipolar two disorders are characterized by a historical course of no less than 1 major depressive episode and as a minimum 1 hypomanic episode. Hypomania episodes occasionally manifest as an episode of recurrent depressive feelings. Hypo manic period is accompanied by, the mood brightens, psychomotor activities being hastened and the need for sleep reduces. Frequently the control goes behind circadian factors, for example, an individual going when he or she he exhausted and waking up very energetic. Overeating and undereating are some features of this disorder and can recur seasonally for example during winter or autumn. Sleeplessness and poor appetite come about at the depressive phase. For some people, hypomanic phases are adaptive for the reason that they are energetic, confident, and very super social working (NIMH, 2009).
A manic episode is characterized by an individual having an irritable or expansive and persistently elevated mood, which is accompanied by other additional signs and symptoms: for instance, grandiosity or inflated self-esteem, or reduced want for sleep, greater loquaciousness than the normal, continual rise of mood, distractibility, racing of thought or flight of ideas s, increased ambition-directed action, and extreme participation in pleasing activities with a higher risk of undesirable consequences (Goodwin, 2000).
Classically, individuals in manic phase episodes are enthusiastic and colorfully dressed; they usually speak authoritatively and speak a lot than normal. Furthermore, new ideas are activated by sounds of words rather than by meaning. In addition, they continuously shift from one idea to another. Nevertheless, patients lean to believe that their brains are functioning well. Lack of consciousness and an increased capability for activity frequently bring about invasive behavior which is a dangerous combination. However, patients develop Interpersonal friction which makes them feel that they are not justly treated or being persecuted. Finally, manic patients usually work continuously, excessively inexhaustibly, and impulsively without realizing the intrinsic social dangers of the activities they involve themselves in (Goodwin, 2000).
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In Hypo manic phase, patients usually have no depressed mood but are in a mixed state of manic and depressive or hypomanic characters, for instance, momentary changes to tearfulness at some stage in the elevation of mania or racing opinions during a depressive phase. In no less than 1⁄3 of an individual with bipolar illness, the complete episode is mixed. A common sign usually comprises of lack of sleep, excited mood, occasional crying, deep worries, nervous agitation, lavishness, suicidal thoughts, and confusion. This expression is defined as dysphoric mania.
Some individuals with bipolar illness become suicidal. For instance: a person wanting to commit suicide, feeling hopeless, helpless, and abusing drugs. In addition, a person may also give away his belongings and reorganize his finances. A threat for suicide is usually higher at the beginning of the course of the ill-health. For this reason, identifying bipolar disorder patients early enough and understanding how best to control and manage it may reduce the risk of committing suicide (Parikh, 2004)).
Causes of bipolar disorder
Heredity or Genetic factors
Researches conducted on human genes have shown that kids, who their biological parents have suffered from bipolar one or bipolar two illnesses, are likely to suffer from the same disease because of hyperactivity disorder which develops into bipolar disorder in the long run. Furthermore results from gene research recommend that bipolar illness, like other mental disorders, does not come about because of a distinct gene. It looks likely that many diverse genes work together, and in a mixed combination with other causal factors of an individual or the individual’s environment, which result in bipolar disorder. The Discovery of these genes, each one of which plays only a small part toward the susceptibility to bipolar illness, has been tremendously difficult (Huxley 2002).
Cognitive and neurodevelopment factors
Neurodevelopment factors have also contributed to the development of bipolar disorder especially during adolescents. Research on adolescents has shown that neurodevelopment impediments are overrepresented at the beginning of onset bipolar illness. These impediments occur in language, motor, and social development about ten to eighteen years before the onset of affective symptoms. In addition, Adolescents who suffered from early neurodevelopment delays were very susceptible to developing psychotic signs and symptoms (Luby 2008).
Bipolar disorder can also be predisposed by an environmental factor. For instance the parent’s behaviors and way of life, given that the parents have not been in a stable relationship their problems are usually passed on to the children, and hence the children develop psychological problems, thus expose them to the susceptibility to these bipolar disorders. The educational status also influences how an individual relationship with another individual, and knowing this disorder help one not expose him to these causal factors, such as abusing drugs and toxic chemicals (NIMH, 2009).
Mental health disorders
Adolescent who has suffered from mental health illnesses are at high risk of developing bipolar disorders due to the predisposing factors. For instance, the incarcerated adolescents have been affected tremendously, by a large number of mental health disorders. A number are facing legal penalties as a direct consequence of behaviors that come about from unmanaged or untreated mental illness (Hyman 1999).
Biologic and biochemical factors
Lack of sleep is an indicator of the manic state of bipolar disorder. On the other hand need for much sleep is a result of the depression phase of bipolar disorder. Instability often supports in explaining the abnormal mood phase of bipolar illness in both the depressed or manic phases. The biological aspects that influence these anomalies of mood sleep disturbances are not copious valued. Some recommend that neurobiological or neuro-chemical shifts are responsible for this episodic mood or sleep disturbances in combination with several shifts that take place in the evolution of depressed or manic states (Mood disorders Society of Canada, 2009).
Treatment of the bipolar disorder
Most individuals with bipolar illness through proper treatment and medication can achieve considerable stabilization of their status of mood swings and correlated signs and symptoms. Since bipolar disorder is usually a recurrent illness, long-term interventions for treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention are recommended. An approach that merges psychosocial and medication treatment is most favorable for managing and controlling bipolar disorder over time.
Continuous treatment of bipolar disorder in most cases is preferred, then on and off strategy. But even in absence of breaks in treatment, shifts in mood can crop up and the doctor in charge must be informed immediately. Hence the doctor will be able to avert a full-blown state by making alterations to the treatment arrangement. Effective treatment is achieved by the patients working closely with the physician and communicating plainly regarding treatment options and concerns (Parikh, 2004).
Furthermore, keeping a graph of the day by day mood shifts, signs and symptoms, sleep patterns, treatments, and life proceedings that may assist individual with bipolar illness and their family to better comprehend the sickness. This graph also can assist the physician track and most effectively treat the sickness.
Bipolar disorder Medications are given by psychiatrists—medical doctors, who have specialized in the process of diagnosis and curing mental health disorders. Medications recognized as mood stabilizers frequently are given to assist control and bipolar illness. Several different kinds of mood shifts stabilizers are obtainable. Generally, individuals with bipolar illness go on with treatment and mood shifts stabilizers for extended periods. Additional medications are given when required, usually for a short duration, to treat episodes of depression or mania that may come through regardless of the mood shifts stabilizer (Mood disorders Society of Canada, 2009).
Lithium, the initial mood-stabilizer medication permitted by the United States of America Food and Drug Administration, for treating mania episodes, is frequently very effective in managing and preventing the reappearance of both depressive and manic episodes. In addition, Anticonvulsant medications, such as carbamazepine or valproate are very effective mood-stabilizers for treating most resistant episodes of bipolar disorders (Parikh, 2004).
Psychosocial treatments have proved to be very effective in managing and controlling bipolar disorders apart from medication treatment. These treatments include certain kinds of psychotherapy for example talk, which is very useful in providing support, guidance, and education to individuals with bipolar illness and their families. Researches have proved that psychosocial treatments assist a lot of mood stabilization process. An authorized social worker, psychologist, or counselor, in general, offers these therapies and time and again works jointly with the psychiatrist to watch bipolar disorder patient’s progress. The number of times, type, and occurrence is usually based on the requirement of treatment intervention for each person (Parikh 2004).
Social workers assist bipolar disorder patients to learn to change negative or inappropriate thought trends and behaviors linked with bipolar disorders (Mood disorders Society of Canada, 2009). In addition, social workers play a part in educating the bipolar disorder patients about the sickness and its medication treatment, and how to identify signs and systems of relapse so that intervention measures can be put in place early enough before a full-blown bipolar episode occurs (MFMER,” 2008). Furthermore, social workers assist the family members to cope up well with bipolar patients through the application of family therapy.finally, through social and Interpersonal rhythm therapy social workers assist patients with bipolar illness both to develop interpersonal relationships and to standardize their daily duties.
Resources available for Individuals and Families with Bipolar Disorders
Bipolar patients and the family affected can visit resource centers where they can be assisted in managing and controlling the disorders, for instance, Hospital psychiatry departments, medical school or Universities affiliated programs, Health management organizations, Private psychiatric mental health care, and clinics and community Public mental health facilities (Mood disorders Society of Canada, 2009).
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Individuals with bipolar illness should be diagnosed and treated under the care of a specialized psychiatrist in bipolar disorders. Additional mental health experts, such as psychologists, nurses, or social workers psychiatric can help in providing bipolar patients and their families with supplementary approaches to treatment. In addition, though episodes of depression and mania usually are on and off, and therefore it is imperative to appreciate that bipolar disorder is a long-standing illness, which at present has no cure. Continuing on treatment, during healthy times, can assist keep the illness controlled and lessen the possibility of having recurring, worsening episodes.
- Individuals with bipolar illness need strong support from friends and families and to look for treatment.
- Family physicians do play a significant task in the provision of referral services to mental health patients.
- Individuals who are in the mixed of a rigorous episode need to be admitted to the hospital for need treatment and protection.
Hyman, E. (1999). Mental health illness disorders, New York: Yourdon Press.
Goodwin, R. (2000). Bipolar manic and depressive illness. New York: Oxford University Press
Lusby, N. (2008). Adolescent and teenager bipolar disorder, Englewood: Prentice-Hall Publishers.
Huxley, N. (2002). Introduction to mental health disorders genetics. USA: New Riders Press.
Parikh, N. (2004). Bipolar illness therapeutics. London: Sage.
Mood Disorders Society of Canada. Bipolar disorder. (2009). Web.
“MFMER” (2008), Depression: Bipolar disorder. (2009). Web.
“NIMH”, Bipolar Disorder. (2009). Web.