The article written by Cañadas-De la Fuente et al. (2015) is focused on the issue of burnout syndrome experienced by nursing professionals because it is seen as a trigger of various health problems. The researchers claim that “the burnout syndrome is beginning to be regarded as an occupational illness of high prevalence among nursing in Spain” (Cañadas-De la Fuente et al., 2015, p. 240).
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This issue was discussed within the context of existing knowledge, as a lot of attention has already been paid to the problems of overload associated with the nursing profession. For example, Mohamed (2016) discussed the way nurses from Assiut University Hospital manage their work-life, focusing on overload, burnout, and coping strategies. Similarly, Cimiotti, Aiken, Sloane, and Wu (2012) investigated how burnout affects patients’ conditions.
The study increases an opportunity to prevent the syndrome with the most appropriate interventions, which will solve this nursing problem. While its purpose is “to estimate the prevalence of burnout, to identify the variables related to burnout, and to propose a risk profile for this syndrome among the nursing personnel” (Cañadas-De la Fuente et al., 2015).
Review of the Literature
The literature review is included in the introduction of the article and is not outlined separately. It explores the concept of burnout syndrome and associated issues, such as the symptoms of physical and emotional overloads. Professionals indicate that this problem is critical for modern working environments. Nurses often reveal reduced personal accomplishment, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and other psychosomatic, emotional, attitude, and behavioral problems that also affect their clients. It is also stated that personal, psychological, occupational, work environment, and socio-demographic variables influence prevalence and risks for burnout syndrome.
This information is gathered from various references, including those from the end of the 20th century and current ones. In this way, the researchers managed to prove that the discussed issue is on the front burner for a long time and that its research expands with the course of time.
The majority of theoretical concepts used in the study are clearly defined, which makes it understandable even for those readers who are not nursing professionals.
This research is mainly based on nursing theory, but it also relates to occupational and behavioral theories. It is also tightly associated with psychology due to its connection with the stress that influences job performance. However, the authors mainly focused on the sphere of nursing in the framework of their article and did not define other theoretical concepts related to the research.
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According to Cañadas-De la Fuente et al. (2015): “Dependent variables were the three Burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Independent variables were socio-demographic, organizational, personality-related variables” (p. 240).
The variables were explained by the researchers so that they could be easily defined. However, not all of them were concrete and easily measurable. For example, those related to burnout symptoms were measured with the help of the adapted Maslach Burnout Inventory.
The research question was not clearly stated in the article, but it can be developed on the basis of the research objectives. In this way, the authors wanted to know what risk factors for burnout syndrome among nurses were.
This article is maintained in the framework of quantitative research, a cross-sectional study, in particular. The inductive reasoning was used, as the authors maintained research and developed generalized ideas on the basis of particular examples.
The sample included 676 nursing professionals. Unfortunately, the researchers did not state what sampling method was used, but it can be presupposed that it was both non-probability and opportunistic. The authors were limited to the Andalusian Health Service (Spain) and resorted to various hospitals within it. Participants were excluded only because there was not enough information needed for the study.
Focusing on the measurement tools, professionals resorted to external validity and internal consistency reliability.
The ethical guidelines were used for this study. They were aligned with the Helsinki declaration. However, No approval from the Institutional Review Board was obtained due to the peculiarities of the study. The patients were not engaged, and no interventions were maintained, which allowed avoiding this step. However, the privacy and anonymity of nurses were ensured. The researchers avoided mentioning their names and ensured that the data were properly transferred and stored. No treatment-related ethical considerations were addressed because this information was not discussed.
A cross-sectional study was maintained by researchers to obtain information related to the risks of burnout syndrome. A set of questionnaires was developed to approach the participants and receive their feedback. This method was selected due to its benefits and the possibility to compare different variables and their effects on nursing professionals. Moreover, they could be completed rather fast. The researchers indicated that about 45 minutes were enough to answer all the questions.
In this way, biases were also reduced because the participants accomplished these tasks individually and were deprived of the opportunity to follow the decision of the majority. As was already mentioned the Maslach Burnout Inventory was used for measurement. The analysis was also developed with the help of information measured by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. It also included a t-test and the Games-Howell test. SPSS software was used to ensure proper analysis of statistical data. The Welch or Brown-Forsythe approaches and Mackinnon and White’s covariance matrix were utilized as well. Multiple linear regression models were approached for analysis.
Results were presented in tables mainly and then explained by the authors with more detail. It was found out that “there were statistically significant differences in burnout levels associated with the following variables: age, gender, marital status, having children, level of healthcare, type of work shift, healthcare service areas and conducting administrative tasks” (Cañadas-De la Fuente et al., 2015, p. 240).
Summary/Conclusions, Implications, and Recommendations
The peculiarities of the study prevented researchers from considering causal relations. A non-randomized sample was used, which affected the possibility to generalize the findings for the larger populations. Even though it is possible to extend the sample size to individuals with similar characteristics, improvement is still required, and the results should be taken with caution.
However, the size of the sample and the usage of various settings are rather beneficial. They allow researchers to develop realistic ideas. Randomized sampling can be used in the future to generalize findings to other populations and extend their characteristics. All in all, the authors’ findings and conclusions are significant for nursing, as they reveal risk factors for burnout syndrome and give scientists an opportunity to develop initiatives needed to overcome this issue. In this way, they are expected to improve nurses’ performance and job satisfaction. What is more, client health outcomes will be affected positively as a result, because nursing services will improve.
Cañadas-De la Fuente, G. A., Vargas, C., San Luis, C., García, I., Cañadas, G. R., & Emilia, I. (2015). Risk Factors and Prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in the Nursing Profession. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(1), 240-249.
Cimiotti, J., Aiken, L., Sloane, D., & Wu, E. (2012). Nurse staffing, burnout, and health care: Associated infection. American Journal of Infection Control, 40(6), 486–490.
Mohamed, F. (2016). Relationship among nurses role overload, burnout and managerial coping strategies at intensive care units. International Journal of Nursing & Care Practices, 3(1), 180-186.
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