The case of a 7-year-old boy is not purely physical. His condition probably has psychological roots. Such attachment to a mother is not common for this age. The case is not simple since the situation has lasted for a year. Moreover, it is complicated by the fact of repeated nightmares. Thus, a complex approach to the problem looks efficient.
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The case can be managed in the following way. First of all, a thorough examination of a boy is needed to find the roots of his condition. Work with parents and classroom teachers should be obligatorily included in the plan. After the examination, the type of intervention will be selected.
Plan of Care: Pharmacologic and Non-Pharmacologic Interventions
The pharmacologic treatment of a child should not be a priority in this case. The pharmacological intervention can include some support therapy to normalize sleep. However, a major role should be given to the therapist (Levy & Orlans, 2014). A therapist can use strategies such as emotional change, attachment communication training, self-regulation and anger management, etc. Another important intervention is parents’ involvement into development of child’s healthy self-perception.
The plan for parents includes behavior intended to form a positive self-concept. Firstly, parents should be careful in characterizing children and avoid negative labels. Secondly, parents should create the situations of success. Thirdly, parents’ belief in children’s abilities and decency is crucial. Finally, it is important to satisfy their needs for learning and exploration without irritation.
Some strategies help a pediatric provider to identify victims of child maltreatment. They include parent or family assessment, child (adolescent) assessment, and physical examination. In addition, this assessment gives information on the prevalence of maltreatment. Thus, it is possible to prevent some cases of maltreatment (World Health Organization, 2015). Nevertheless, the provider faces some biases and beliefs that can prevent the identification of at-risk children. They include cultural and social issues first of all. For example, it can be hard to believe that a child in a family of successful and socially active parents faces maltreatment.
As a health care provider, I should not be guided by my personal views. I have to use my professional experience and the accepted guidelines even if they conflict with my perceptions. The issues of sexuality, sexual orientation, or birth control are personal and should not be interfered with.
Values, beliefs, and spirituality are also influencing the health and well-being of children and adolescents (Burns et al., 2016). They are developed during life and vary in children of different ages. Thus, preschoolers acknowledge the absolute nature of rules (Burns et al., 2016). Their behavior is predetermined by the fear of punishment or desire for the award. The feeling of independence and ability to differentiate oneself from others is developed in this period (Burns et al., 2016).
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School-age children think that the rules provide order and help people. They are motivated for good behavior by avoiding guilt, pleasing others, and preserving the status of a “good child” (Burns et al., 2016, p.303). Adolescents are already aware of the ethical nature of rules. One of the strong behavioral motives is to preserve the respect of self, friends, and society (Burns et al., 2016).
The assessment of values and beliefs helps to evaluate the belief system of a child and family. Moreover, it discloses the influence of beliefs on the decisions related to illnesses and health. Thus, this evaluation discloses the approaches which a provider can use in preventive care (Burns et al., 2016).
On the whole, close attachment is more characteristic of younger children. School children already develop certain self-identification and individuality. Thus, the parents from the case should pay more attention to the child, find the reason for this behavior, and help him to overcome the complicated period.
Burns, C.E., Dunn, A.M., Brady, M.A., Starr, N.B., Blosser, C.G., & Garzon, D.L. (2016). Pediatric primary care E-Book (6th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences.
Levy, T.M., & Orlans, M. (2014). Attachment, trauma, and healing (2nd ed.). London, UK: Jessika Kingsley Publishers.
World Health Organization. (2015). Effective strategies for detecting maltreatment of children and youth within the context of mental health and developmental assessment. Web.