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Civilization Concepts: Religion and History


Civilization refers to where by a society or community is being transformed from its old ways of doing things to modern ways. Civilization comes as change is made in the political social, economic and religious doing. Western civilization was brought about in forms of art literature drama as well as community gathering. Thomas Aquinas, Martin Luther, and Blaise Pascal contributed a lot in the western civilization. They applied their knowledge and wisdom to impact western styles and cultures to the society. In so doing their shared similar believes and varying believes. Therefore, this discussion will explore the work of these great philosophers and how they differed or were similar.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas, an Italian priest who lived between 1225 and 1274, was theologian and a philosopher. He supported natural theology and is known to have led the Thomistic school of theology and philosophy. He was adored by the Catholic Church as an exemplar teacher for priesthood students. Moreover, the Catholic Church regards him as a great philosopher and theologian; in fact, he was a Doctor of the Church.

Thomas Aquinas approached western civilization through theology. Athough he made writings and literates, he mainly made his points through the argument of the bible.

Martin Luther

Martin Luther lived between 1483 and 1546. As a German theologian, monk and Church reformer (Ewald, 6), Martin Luther differed with Thomas Aquinas in that his ideas altered the direction of Western civilization and stirred the Reformation of the protestants (Hans). His theology questioned the papacy authority and argued that only the Bible had religious authority (Plass, 88). Furthermore, he referred to all baptized Christians as a universal priesthood.

According to Martin, salvation is free and only given by God the creator, and is received through faith in the Messiah and repentance. So the Church is only a mediator. He brought about division in the Catholic church.

Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal was a French man born in 1623 and died in 1662. He was a religious philosopher, a physicist and a mathematician. As a proponent of Jean Guillebert, he broke away from the conventional Catholic to join the a religious sect known as Janseism; it advocated Augustinism. Later, Blaise Pascal converted to the mainstream Christianity and started to write theological work. Initially, Pascal believed in scientific principles.


These three great philosophers and theologians have greatly contributed to the western civilization. Starting with Thomas Aquinas who supported the early believes in the Catholic Church. The Priest and the Pope determined everything that was done in the Church and no was would question. However, this changed with the teachings of Martin Luther who argued for the inclusion of the common people in decision making of the Church. He advocated for Protestants. On the other hand, Pascal was a scientist who later became a proponent of Christian religion before turning into an atheist. As a scientist, Pascal changed the views of the society into using scientific theories to jugde occurrences.

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Work cited

Carlton, Joseph The:History of western Civilization. Huntly Hase. Vol. I 1967.

Conkin, Paul.Western World. USA: Vol.11 1967.Ewald, Plass M. Monasticism; in What Luther Says: An Anthology. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959, 2:964.

Hans, Hillerbrand J. Martin Luther: Significance, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007.

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