Significance of the Topic
The existing research reveals that inter-annual and inter-decade climate variation has a greater influence on the history of vector-borne maladies. The studies prove that global temperatures are expected to rise from 0.1 to 3.5 degrees centigrade in the near future, which means vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, will have the opportunities of affecting many lives. Higher temperatures are known to facilitate disease transmissions. Several factors are blamed for causing global change, but human settlement is one of the major factors that are likely to influence the trend at which diseases are spread.
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In the American continent, over 70% of the population is urban while the rate is low in Africa ranging between 35-45%. Climate abnormalities, associated mostly with El Nino, which results in extreme droughts and over-flooding, are expected to increase, as well as worsen the situation as far as the rate of recurrence and intensity of diseases are concerned. The climate anomalies are often linked with the outbreak of malaria in many parts of Africa, Asia, and South America, which means climate change poses a serious challenge to human health and continued existence.
The map shows that the African continent, particularly the Sub-Saharan region, is the most affected region because of its positioning in the tropical zone. The region experiences large amounts of rain and studies show that wet areas are the breeding zones for mosquitoes that cause malaria. The warm environment of the African continent allows the development of the parasite, as it facilitates the maturity circle in the process.
This means the transmission rate is faster than expected in the region. The continent is considered the fastest in terms of urbanization because rural-urban migration is rarely controlled. In fact, the governments in the continent do nothing to ensure rural areas are provided with adequate resources, such as employment and road networks, which is known to attract the populations. Population increase and overcrowding is a major problem in the African continent, which facilitates the spread of malaria in a rate that many would not expect.
Current studies show that hospitals admit at least fifteen percent annually due to malaria. The ministries of public health in the continent have failed to provide adequate sanitation, clean water for drinking, and poor housing system, which has led to spread of malaria. Unlike the western countries, the African continent faces planning challenges because some places are inaccessible and residents depend on the state to provide clean water for drinking. The types of houses are majorly shanty and the few affluent houses belong to the rich who are never concerned with environmental conservation.
It is unfortunate that farming is conducted in urban areas in African cities, which facilitates the breeding of mosquitoes. Sanitation is poor because animals are herd in the streets, something that affects the living standards of many as far as health is concerned1. The following map shows that most parts of the continent are prone to diseases because of poor planning and insufficient policy implementation among African governments leading to the spread of vector-borne diseases, malaria being the most deadly. If proper policies are put in place, the continent has the capacity to prevent the spread of malaria that has claimed a number of lives.
Africa – Striking Back at Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa.” The World Bank. Web.
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Volker, Ermert, Fink, Andreas, and Paeth, Heiko. “The potential effects of climate change on malaria transmissions in Africa using bias-corrected regionalized climate projections and a simple malaria seasonality model.” Climate Change, 120.4 (2013), 741-754.
- Africa – Striking Back at Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa.” The World Bank. Web.
- Volker, Ermert, Fink, Andreas, and Paeth, Heiko. “The potential effects of climate change on malaria transmissions in Africa using bias-corrected regionalized climate projections and a simple malaria seasonality model.” Climate Change, 120.4 (2013), 741-754.