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Cybercrimes: The Effect on Public Administration

Abstract

In today’s period of online processing, most of the information and data is online and thus susceptible to cyber threats. Researchers and crime scholars argue that conflicts and wars between countries will occur in cyberspace as opposed to physical spaces in the future. The first documented cybercrime occurred in the early-19th century. Current computers have come a long way, with neural computing alleging to transform every element in a glass of water into a computer with the ability to conduct innumerable activities in a second. Cybercrime has gained popularity thanks to the increasing reliance on computers in today’s life. This paper discusses and analyzes the aspect of cybercrime, including the strategies and impacts of cybercrimes and their types extensively.

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Introduction

This paper will examine the effects of cybercrime on public administration. Cybercriminals utilize the interconnectedness, secrecy, and anonymity given by the internet, thus violating the very basis of the modern information society. Typically, cybercrime can entail computer viruses, botnets, cyberbullying, cyber-pornography, cyber-terrorism, identity theft, and cyber-stalking.

Problem statement

Today, when people discuss cybercrime, they fail to acknowledge the scope of these crimes. Many inquiries occurred at the time the word cyber-crime was introduced. Cybercrime attacks form the basis of current technological environments, bound by the speedy flow of computer information steered by the web. While it is likely in most instances for the victim of cybercrime to replace stolen bank information and money, the occurrence usually leaves the victim devastated and profoundly mistrustful of the internet and other accouterments of the modern world.

Purpose of the Study

This paper aims to analyze the effects of cybercrimes on the public administration of both developed and developing nations (Kagita et al., 2020). This research study will specifically attempt to answer the research questions.

Objectives of the Study

  • To determine the effects of cybercrime attacks in the public administration
  • To identify how the cybercrimes are committed
  • To explore the federal and state regulations and policies regarding cybercrime.
  • To determine how cybercrimes are prevented and reduced.

Rationale for the Study

The rationale of this paper is to analyze the effects of cybercrimes on the society and economy of both developed and developing nations (Shava & Hofisi, 2017). Furthermore, this study attempts to assist individuals, businesses, and governments in acknowledging cybersecurity and cybercrimes’ ethical and legal prospects and synchronizing legal systems.

Definitions of Terms

  1. Cybercrimes – cybercrimes refer to criminal and deviant conducts and behaviors perpetrated via the use of a computer or any other form of technological device.
  2. Cyber-terrorism refers to the use of the internet to plan deliberate and widespread attacks to interrupt computer systems and networks.

Theoretical Framework

The internet and computers play an integral role in public administration and people’s daily lives, making it essential to understand and acknowledge the changing aspects of cybercrime and those who are victims of this criminal act (Coppolino et al., 2018). Studying cybercrime and cyber security allows individuals to establish the element of cybercrime and the intent of its perpetrators.

Chapter summary

The first chapter has presented the background, research objectives, theoretical framework, and research problem statement. The paper describes the effects of cybercrime on public administration and how criminals in cyberspace use anonymity given by the internet to violate information. The research problem touches on the heavy impact of cybercrimes on the victims who end up doubting the legitimists of the internet. The paper seeks to answer the research questions of how cybercrimes are committed, the regulations put in place, and how cybercrime can be reduced. The study’s rationale is meant to help businesses and economies secure against cyber-attacks. Cybercrimes refer to the use of the internet to spread attacks on computer systems and networks. The study of cybercrimes helps society in protecting their data online.

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In chapter two, it is shown that the Internet, computers, and digital devices have been used by criminals to commit illegal activities. Companies do not report such incidents because the general public knows that their safety is at stake and is afraid of losing credibility. Cybercrime has and will continue to have a major impact. Data breaches can be caused by hacking, internal threats, and phishing, which can result in significant financial loss in repairing the damage. In chapter three, the methodology of the study is presented. The paper uses a random sampling method to obtain quantitative research. Three hundred participants were sampled, interviewed to understand the effects of cybercrime. Chapter four recommends that forensic expertise come first, followed by legislation that allows victims to seek relief. The legislature can order to exclude all incoming online traffic and block websites that pose a security risk to domestic Internet users before they become accessible.

Literature Review

Cybercrime is a big threat to the privacy and economi security of established businesses and also consumers.Cyber crime that is directed to the state presents a great threat to the security of the whole state. Absence of security in a nation’s internet unables the society to be productive as they are always in fear of being attacked on the internet.Every minute that passes hackers steal personal,financial or business information which is sensitive and destroys busnisses or people by giving away secrets that shuld not be known by the public.Criminals can acess computers remotely and cause chaos so that they can blackmail and get something in return.

Since businesses began to use computer systems and networks in their operations, cybercrime has grown in financial consequences and complexity (Coppolino et al., 2018). Criminals have noticed this cost-effective technique as technology connecting governments, individuals, and corporations engaged in worldwide business grows (Shava & Hofisi , 2017). In most cases, cybercrime impacts society and the government, as well as the prosecutor. Cybercrime’s overall monetary impact on society and government is uncertain. According to some estimates, viruses and worms are thought to cost billions of dollars each year. It is estimated that only 5 to 10% of cybercrimes are reported to authorities. Companies do not report such cases because they fear the public will know that their security has been compromised, making them lose credibility. Cybercrime has had and will continue to have a significant influence.

All governments and economies connected to the Internet have felt the impact of cybercrime and will continue to do so in the future. The use of the internet, computers, and digital gadgets has been used by criminals to carry out unlawful acts. Prosecutors must stay on the Current type of crime-fighting and equip themselves with the newest resources and training to fight cybercrime. The disadvantage of this dependency is that it increases the likelihood of cyberattacks and Breaches of data. The personally identifiable information (PII), which compromises the date of birth, social security number, and resident’s name, is stored on a government system that could be compromised through breaches. Personal health information is also kept on file by government agencies (PHI) relating to their staff that, if hacked, could cause significant troubles.

Breaching of data can be caused by hacking, insider threats, and phishing, resulting in significant financial losses due to repairing and addressing the harm. The following are some examples: Then there is the need to keep an eye on your cloud providers and conduct audits to verify continuous compliance. Suppliers are increasingly recognizing this need and offering a variety of independently verified security certifications to assure clients of their competence.

Governments secure their systems by protecting their private cloud solutions, allowing them to apply stricter rules and separation at a higher expense and with a lower scale advantage. The phenomenon of “bring your device” (BYOD) impacts all businesses. Employees of the government and suppliers increasingly use their gadgets such as tablets, computers, and smartphones for work. All management’s should implement a BYOD strategy across the firm, as well as adopt procedures to bring their gadgets under control and ensure the data can only be accessed over secure apps. Additionally, the access channels may only be accessed and processed by specific applications over certain encrypted channels meaning all sensitive data should be encrypted.

Employees should be aware of the acceptable usage guidelines for BYOD on work networks. These networks should outline management’s rights to erase all data in instances of theft or departure of an employee. The cloud, outsourcing, and communal services relocate government services externally (Ferbrache, 2016). The major problem is always in-house security personnel who ensures that the government stays discreet of such services and has easy access to essential talents.

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Management of incidents early detection, analytics monitoring, and response services are in short supply, and the demand is high. Various government institutions are dealing with budgetary difficulties that can be solved through cybersecurity procedures. We need to develop new approaches to pull in and develop cyber security experts. However, outsourcing may boost security since cloud services providers are more likely to improve cyber security than legacy systems and obsolete software found in many governments’ IT infrastructures.

Chapter summary

The literature review focuses on coppolino and febrache view on cyber crime impact on public administration.They discuss the various ways cyber crime happen e.g through phising hacking e.t.c.the authors go on to recommend and emphasize preventive measures that should be adopted like the government providing the necessary resources,training and equimpent needed to fight cybercrime. This chapter focuses on the methods used to collect data for a quantitative description of the study. The random sampling method was used to obtain a sample size of 300 participants out of the total population. Each of the subsets represented a group of individuals from various organizations.

Research Methodology

Type of Research

The method of research that is utilized in this research study is the quantitative research approach.

Sampling design

The research sampling approach utilized in this research study is random sampling. This is because a Random sample is among the most straightforward data collection method of the entire population.

Participants

Three hundred participants were randomly chosen from each sect of the target population. The specific subgroups in this research paper are individuals and individuals representing their respective organizations and agencies.

Sample Size and Potential Attrition

The above-selected sample size is appropriate and sufficient because it represents the entire population.

Research Ethics: Informed Consent and Voluntary Participation

The participation was voluntary, and therefore no subject was coerced to participate in the research project without their consent.

Outcome Measures

Typically, all the 300 participants were required to fill out questionnaire forms that contained a range of questions.

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Validity

Although face validity is often present, it is neither sufficient nor essential. Typically, questions to which participants are restrained to give accurate answers are of particular concern.

Reliability

Typically, regarding measuring the outcome, reliability is depicted by determining whether or not the data collection approaches provide consistent results.

Research Design: Exploratory Research Design

Cybercrime and cyber terrorism are not new ideas though the perpetrators’ intent varies across the dimension (Jan et al., 2021). This study will focus on experimental research design to gain insights into the meaning and impact of cybercrime in society.

Data Collection

Semi-structured interview questions aided this study for data collection purposes. The research relied entirely on the responses of the interviews, and their answers formed the basis of the required data to aid in making the inference.

Summary

This chapter focuses on the methods used to collect data for quantitative descriptiom of the study. The random sampling method was used to obtain a sample size of 300 participants out of the total population. Each of the subsets represented a group of individuals from various organizations. For the research to remain ethical, nobody was coerced to participate. Semi-structured interviews were used to aid in collecting data. This study has heavily used experimental research design to understand the meaning and impact of cybercrime in society.

Results

Cybercrime – A Rising Challenge for Public Administration

The following is a table showing the response to the possible cybercrime factors.

Factor response SA A U DA SDA
Technology growth N 190 100 5 0 0
Economic factor N 205 95 0 0 0

Web users and governments confront a more significant threat of cyber in a digital world, where the internet has become the norm. In addition to developing and improving their skills, cyber thieves focus away from financial crime and government. Improved technology has facilitated the development of more efficient communication networks, allowing for faster and more efficient information flow across countries.

Effect of Increasing Cybercrime on Public Administration

The worldwide cybercrime landscape has radically altered over several years, with criminals utilizing more advanced tech and a higher understanding of the cyber defense. It used to be that malware, spam emails, and hacking into business websites were the work of computer experts who wanted to show off their skills. As of 2020, there was 137.7 million malware. There was a slight reduction from 144.91 samples in 2019. As of June 2021,92.45 million pieces came about. Polymorphic malware was discovered in 2019, and this type has the power to change its form to avoid being detected constantly (2020 Webroot Threat Report). The same report states that close to 50% of PCs and 53% were once infected with viruses.

The following table illustrates the respondent’s feedback on the effects of cybercrime:

impact Response SA A U DA ADA
hacking N 180 100 20 0 0
spamming N 220 180 0 0 0
Digital piracy N 159 130 11 0 0

These assaults were rarely nasty in the past, but now they have grown into cybercrime cartels that are leeching off money via unlawful cyber channels. However, cybercrime motivated by political reasons has already spread across the globe (Coppolino et al., 2018). Indeed, cyberspace has become a new battlefield for espionage and sabotage, as seen by digital espionage assaults on communications systems.

Discussions, Conclusion, and Recommendations

Hacking, the term for gaining unauthorized access to a computer system without authorization, can take many forms, and not all of them require a high level of technical expertise. Using a computer or a terminal to break into various computer systems is part of the process (Jan et al., 2021). The efficiency of passwords is considerably diminished when users do not select them carefully because cybercriminals utilize snifters or guess them. Spamming is sending several copies of the same message to numerous recipients through the internet. Thousands of emails are sent, hoping that a small percentage will be opened and a more significant portion will elicit a response. The term “junk mail” refers to the unsolicited mail that has been sent with a fictitious return address.

Conclusion

In conclusion, cybercrime has adverse effects on public administration, the economy, and society. Several previously peer-reviewed research journals have been incorporated in the paper to understand this social vice further. The research study participants are formerly incarcerated people who committed cybercrime, individuals, and parties representing companies that were victims of cybercrime.

Recommendations

Preventive measures are the most effective way to slow the growth of cybercrime in Kenya’s academic institutions. Forensic expertise comes first, followed by legislation that allows victims to seek redress. Legislative bodies can order a body to filter all incoming online traffic before it is accessible by national Internet users and block websites that provide a security risk to those users.

Summary

The Chapter describes the results of the whole research. The scope of cybercrimes changed over the years. Many criminals are using technology more and keep advancing in their cybercrime tactics. They jack into business websites, spam emails with viruses, and sometimes confuse computer experts who want to show off their skills. Cybercrime has extreme effects on public administration, the economy, and society. Previously peer-reviewed research journals have been incorporated in the paper to understand the social vice in Great depth. Kenya should adopt preventive measures because it is a more effective method to slow increasing cybercrimes. Engaging forensic experts and implementing legislation that allows victims to seek justice are ways of reducing the impact of cybercrime.

References

Coppolino, L., D’Antonio, S., Mazzeo, G., Romano, L., & Sgaglione, L. (2018, May). How to protect public administration from cybersecurity threats: The compact project. In 2018 32nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA) (pp. 573-578). IEEE.

Ferbrache, D. (2016). How vulnerable are governments to cyber crime. KPMG GLOBAL. Web.

Jan, N., Nasir, A., Alhilal, M. S., Khan, S. U., Pamucar, D., & Alothaim, A. (2021). Investigate cyber-security and cyber-crimes in oil and gas sectors using the innovative structures of complex intuitionistic fuzzy relations. Entropy, 23(9), 1112. Web.

Kagita, M. K., Thilakarathne, N., Gadekallu, T. R., Maddikunta, P. K. R., & Singh, S. (2020). A review on cyber crimes on the Internet of things. arXiv preprint arXiv:2009.05708. Web.

Shava, E., & Hofisi, C. (2017). Challenges and opportunities for public administration in the fourth industrial revolution. African Journal of Public Affairs, 9(9), 203-215. Web.

Appendix

Hypothesis

The following are the hypotheses that will be used during the research process:

  1. Cybercrime attacks affect public administration and society significantly.
  2. There is a growing prevalence and trend of cybercrime in society today

Dependent and Independent Variables

The independent variable in this research experiment is cybercrime attacks, and the dependent variable is the public administration and society. The cybercrime attacks are the independent variable because the research controls them to ascertain their impacts on the dependent variable, the public administration, and the economy.

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