The website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016) reflects an area of interest for health promotion in the hospitals all over the USA, including my individual work setting located in Miami. This site is full of information about chronic health conditions and their prevention. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of them.
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This condition is a critical problem for the whole country as it may cause disability or even lead to death. TBI is a head injury that may happen alone or along with other injuries. It prevents the brain from the normal functioning, which can cause a change in mental status and other problems like amnesia. According to the report conducted by professionals, 2.5 million people who came to the emergency department suffered from TBI five years ago, this is approximately 16% of all patients with injuries.
Among those who died, one-third had a TBI as a cause of death. Considering all patients with TBI, “87% (2,213,826) were treated in and released from EDs, another 11% (283,630) were hospitalized and discharged, and approximately 2% (52,844) died” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015, p. 19). The majority of the patients represented military services. Mainly, males aged ≥75 years are affected. Still, this can also be kids up to 4 years and youth (15-19) who fell, were struck by something or were in a car accident.
The treatment that requires specialized trauma care and assistance of rehabilitation professionals is mainly covered by insurance; otherwise, it is to be paid out of pocket.
There are different tools that can be used to measure “physical, neuropsychological, psychiatric, behavioral, functional, and quality-of-life” outcomes of TBI, including Glasgow Coma Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Abbreviated Injury Scale, and others (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015, p. 27).
The site advises to use HEADS UP to promote healthy behaviors. These are educational initiatives aimed to protect the public and prevent TBI.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
According to the Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Committee of Miami, heart disease, and stroke are critical health issues for the population, especially the elderly (Healthier Miami-Dade, 2016). These issues are discussed on the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion website as a part of Healthy People 2020. It is stated that they are among the main causes of death in the USA, as they are widely spread. Except for that, the treatment of heart disease and stroke is rather costly. More than $500 billion were spent for such purposes five years ago. These problems are usually caused by “high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, diabetes, poor diet and physical inactivity, overweight and obesity” (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2016, par. 3).
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Today, more than 81 million of the general public in the USA experienced heart disease and strokes. This problem leads to more serious illnesses or even disability and death. It decreases people’s quality of life and affects the elderly as a rule. Still, younger generations can also suffer from cardiovascular issues.
The data about heart disease and stroke is provided by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and National Center for Health Statistics in a form of systematic reviews, as a rule.
In order to measure outcomes, professionals mainly use screening, web-based surveys, blood pressure and cholesterol measurement.
The information about the objectives of Healthy People 2020 related to heart disease and stroke can be used for planning projects to promote healthy behaviors.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). The report to congress on traumatic brain injury in the United States: Epidemiology and rehabilitation. Web.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Traumatic brain injury. Web.
Healthier Miami-Dade. (2016). Elder issues. Web.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2016). Healy People 2020: Heart disease and stroke. Web.