It is not a secret that IT became an integral part of the modern world. Computer technology has entered into all spheres of human activity and became an instrument that can be used to aid in dealing with the intricacy and productivity which is often mandatory in various areas of labor.
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Processing the evidence using a computer allows just as much helpful communiqué between nurses and patients as a handwritten note. The important factor is not the way of saving the data but the interactive skills and incentive of the nurse. The nursing occupation is eventually beginning to recognize the significance which the new expertise can have in refining the care given to patients.
To sustain the control of their qualified input to the large multifaceted structures presently being employed in many medical institutions, the nurses should take active participation in the process of application of computer technologies to medical practice. One of the systems that should be of particular interest to medical workers is the Electronic Health Records system.
Electronic Health Records
The Electronic Health Record is the digital information concerning a patient’s wellbeing evidence produced by one or more accidents in any health care setting. This information includes patient demographics, improvement records, complications, medicines, past therapeutic history, vaccinations, research facts, and reports.
The Electronic Health Record (EHR) systematizes and rationalizes the clinician’s work process (DesRoches et al., 2013). The EHR can create a wide-ranging record of a patient’s medical encounter – along with supporting other care-associated events by the means of an interface – together with evidence-based verdict support, quality supervision, and conclusion writing.
Electronic Health Records life cycle
Planning and Analysis
In most of the cases, the reason for planning is the high fiasco percentage of information systems applications (Lee, Ghapanchi, Talaei-Khoei, & Ray, 2015). There are two basic levels of planning. The first is strategic, where we outline the expectations of what we would like to get from the system. The second is tactical, where we decide how are we going to organize the procedure of implementation. The critical task of this stage is to understand the mission entrusted to the EHR system. To properly implement the system, the team should comprehend managing choices and elaborate on a draft project design. The analysis phase involves the examination of strong and weak points, investigation of the human factors, data capture, and formation of the system requirements.
At this stage, the key system features are to be considered such as centralization or distribution of the system, type of data processing (batch, online, or both). The team should decide how the data will be input into the system. At this point, the team should assess the retailer software as it should necessarily satisfy at least 75% of requirements (Black et al., 2011). Also, at this stage, the team will gauge the estimated costs of the EHR system implementation and mold a prototype that will be shown to the potential users. The team might as well consider testing the system for manifestations of human behavior.
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At this stage, the institution will be adapting to the new EHR system. It is essential to elaborate on training courses for the staff. The training can be carried out online or face-to-face. During the process of the new system implementation, the key event is the technical renovation when the team installs the new equipment and removes the outdated. The team must conduct an audit of the system processing to find out if all the implemented functions are being efficiently used.
Support and Evaluation
During the process of evaluation, the team should learn if the EHR system is functioning in compliance with the original requirements, and figure out the impacts it has on the working process. Finally, the team evaluates the improvements that have been made in the effectiveness and working process. A major part of the evaluation stage is the examination of the inadvertent outcomes of the EHR system implementation. Additional workflow problems may come into sight along with the new types of faults. Numerous previously unknown deviations may occur due to an overdependence on the EHR technology. The newly implemented EHR system needs continuing contact with its users.
Key elements of the needs assessment
The key elements that should be included in the needs assessment are the general user-friendliness, performance level, graphic user interface excessive complexity/plainness, and the effects of collaboration with other systems that may already be in use at the institution. Design features and user interface are crucial to the program because they directly influence the working experience. The effects of collaboration are the central elements for the reason that the implementation of the EHR system will have an impact on the concept of data processing among the staff and may cause confusion.
Key members of the steering committee
The key member of the steering committee is the head of the steering committee, who should know how to guide the committee with an unprejudiced approach and be capable of devoting the time to scheduling and carrying out the development activities. The steering committee should also include at least one doctor and one nurse as they will be the principal users of the EHR and should entirely realize and be involved in the selection, employment, implementation, and ideal use of the EHR components.
At least one individual in the steering committee should represent other medical care services because all medical workers will most likely use the EHR, and should confirm that it satisfies their practical necessities. The IT workers that are the members of the steering committee should provide instructions and support (Yen, & Bakken, 2012). A health information management specialist should be a part of the committee to guarantee an authorized health record. The project manager should be given the power to distribute the employment resources for the organization reasonably.
The strategy for the selection of a product
When selecting an EHR system, the team should pay attention to the fact that the EHR should meet the existing and impending needs of the organization. The EHR should be affordable, and the team should assess all the costs connected to the implementation and maintenance of the product. The EHR has to be simple enough to make training the employees quick and competent. Above all, the EHR should be qualified for the EHR Incentive Programs and Meaningful Use.
Potential training needs
In the case of implementation of the EHR, training begins throughout the system testing period. The workers should be provided with a user’s manual. Organizational guidelines and measures should be attuned. The team responsible for the EHR system should elaborate training set-ups that would as well reflect adult learning approaches (Hostgaard, Bertelsen, & Nohr, 2011). The organization will have to provide the staff with training space and equipment, and their timetables have to be well-thought-out for the drill.
The implementation of an EHR system is a complex process that involves a team of experts in the field. Nevertheless, the EHR is a decent addition to the organizational structure as it is going to provide the medical workers with new methods of data input and access. It is essential to recognize the advantages and drawbacks of a particular EHR system when developing an implementation plan.
Black, A. D., Car, J., Pagliari, C., Anandan, C., Cresswell, K., Bokun, T., Sheikh, A. (2011). The Impact of eHealth on the Quality and Safety of Health Care: A Systematic Overview. PLoS Medicine, 8(1). DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000387
DesRoches, C. M., Charles, D., Furukawa, M. F., Joshi, M. S., Kralovec, P., Mostashari, F., Jha, A. K. (2013). Adoption of Electronic Health Records Grows Rapidly, but Fewer Than Half of US Hospitals Had at Least a Basic System in 2012. Health Affairs, 32(8), 1478-1485. DOI:10.1377/hlthaff.2013.0308
Hostgaard, A. M., Bertelsen, P., & Nohr, C. (2011). Methods to Identify, Study and Understand End-user Participation in HIT Development. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 11(1). DOI:10.1186/1472-6947-11-57
Lee, T., Ghapanchi, A. H., Talaei-Khoei, A., & Ray, P. (2015). Strategic Information System Planning in Healthcare Organizations. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 27(2), 1-31. DOI:10.4018/joeuc.2015040101
Yen, P., & Bakken, S. (2012). Review of Health Information Technology Usability Study Methodologies. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 19(3), 413-422. DOI:10.1136/amiajnl-2010-000020