Enlightenment Culture and 18-th Century Revolutions

The key principles of eighteenth-century Enlightenment culture and liberalism

When speaking about the key principles of eighteenth-century Enlightenment culture and liberalism, one is to keep in mind the fundamentals of the period. So, first of all, it should be pointed out that the Enlightenment period is characterized by modern western worldview establishment. Thus, dramatic changes in science, politics, and philosophy were recognized to be extremely important “because of the tremendous intellectual progress of the age, the advance of the sciences, and the enthusiasm for that progress” (William, 2010, para 1).

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The principal tendencies of Enlightenment thought can be divided into three areas. The first area includes Science, Metaphysics, and Epistemology; the second one is related to Religion, Political, and Ethical theories, and the third area includes Aesthetics.

Three key principles of eighteenth-century Enlightenment culture and liberalism are not easy to define, as liberalism in times of the Age of Enlightenment was characterized by a set of principles. However, the major ones included social justice, complete equality of people’s rights and people’s equality before the law, and market economy.

Later nationalism and totalitarianism were based on other principles; so, they did not support the market economy but developed a plan-based economy and restricted civil liberties. Social-Darwinism, in its turn, refuted the equality of people’s rights.

The Scientific Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. The effects of forcible overthrows

The Scientific Revolution is characterized by important historical changes in social organization, thought, and belief. Generally, the term “Scientific Revolution refers to the period between Copernicus and Newton” (Hatch, n. d., para. 7). The causes of the Scientific Revolution include the expansion of trade, medieval Universities, and the Renaissance. Logic over faith is considered to be one of the basic principles of the Revolution. The major effects of the Revolution include social impact, new ways of observing the world, and important social effects of science (new weapon, more taxes, etc.).

The French Revolution took place at the end of the seventeenth century. Generally, the French Revolution gave other states hope that they can fight for their independence. The effects of the Revolution were great, as the economy, the government, and the social relations of the country were changed. The nation wanted to eliminate the totalitarian regime and fought against the monarchy. “The most important change that the French revolution brought was that the representatives could be elected through universal suffrage, allowing a bigger participation of humble and popular sectors, called sans-culottes” (“The French Revolution and Its Impact on the World,” 2011, para. 3).

The Industrial Revolution took place in the 18th-19th centuries. The most important effects of the Industrial Revolution were urbanization (creating towns in country areas) and global changes in the social structures of the society.

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Unique Forms of Continuity in Space vs. David

When speaking about Umberto Boccioni’s Unique Forms of Continuity in Space and its relation to developments in western culture, it is necessary to state that the sculptor reflected the speed and motion of contemporary society. It is the dynamic energy of the new era, which seems to be the symbol of the sculpture. In other words, Boccioni’s work reflects the so-called modern developments, while Michelangelo’s David reflects the power of emotions.

The strength and anger is a symbolic meaning of David. The sculptures represent different worlds; Unique Forms of Continuity in Space reflects the reality and the advantages/benefits of the modern world. David, in its turn, expresses the importance of religious myth and mystery; the sculpture depicts the importance of a person’s emotional state and shows the power of feelings.

References:

Hatch, R. (n. d.). The Scientific Revolution. Ufl.edu. Web.

The French Revolution and Its Impact on the World. (2011). Drake.edu. Web.

William, B. (2010). Enlightenment. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web.

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StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Enlightenment Culture and 18-th Century Revolutions'. 21 January.

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