Study Background/ Context Analysis
Environmental degradation is, undeniably, one of the hotly debated issues today. However, arriving at a consensus on how to mitigate it remains elusive. Measures aimed at carbon emission reductions such as the 1997 Kyoto Protocol have thus received both praises and criticisms. Shorgen (2009) reckons that the Kyoto accord is an efficient strategy and a crucial step towards fighting environmental degradation. Policymakers who subscribe to an economic model of climate analysis disagree citing that it is costly and does to factor in issues like culture in day to day management of wastes such as food (Golub & Markndaya 2009; Freedman & Jaggi, 2011)). For others, it is shortsighted and far less comprehensive in coverage and emission reduction (Carrel, 2011).
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Regardless of the above arguments, it is imperative to develop measures that can be implemented to reduce the level of emissions, food waste management concerning environmental degradation, as well as energy-related issues (Lee & Samantha, 2012). This is because researchers indicate that such measures emphasize the importance of using modern facilities and legislating new laws that can help in environmental conservation. Besides, various institutions like University Campuses should provide domestic programs to reduce emissions as well as work together with the local and international partners to develop new common world solutions and improve the present programs. No wonder according to Lemonick (2011), “… in 2007, the State Environmental Protection Administration planned to introduce 200 institutions with clean facilities and address efforts aimed at environmental preservation.” In addition, the highly developed economy inherent in the United States can help in developing the financial muscles of the country to deal with environmental issues in such places as University Campuses (Klein, 2004). Nevertheless, cultural and economic aspects cause an imbalance between the government and business. Although both of these categories consider the current problems and attempt to provide initiatives, the problem of food, air and water pollution have not been solved and it is impossible to predict when positive changes will occur in totality (Khan & Yardley, 2009). In a nutshell, campus waste management is instrumental in offering an understanding that there is a co-existential reality that the day to day waste management cannot be isolated from environmental preservation policy-intervention programs (Newman, 2011). Besides, some of the measures that have been developed to deal with environmental issues have weaknesses, bottlenecks and dilemmas, besides having some acclaimed ‘‘short-sightedness’’ and ‘‘costliness’’, that limit its implementation process and efficiency. Further, there are legal gaps (Osnos, 2009).
This paper aims to achieve several objectives. The overall goal is to explore the habits, activities, and environmental knowledge of the campus community such as the students, faculty and staff. With this, the study aims to foster an understanding of how students use resources that relate to food, water, and energy-related issues. In the end, the study, based on empirical evidence adduced from it, lists out recommendations to the Environmental Sustainable agency within the campus.
Research Methods and Procedure
This section relates to a justified and very informed account of how the research was approached. Various epistemological and ontological issues that are related to the research are provided. The chapter, therefore, addresses the actual methodologies used in the research process from its time of inception to the end. Additionally, how data was collected and later analyzed to reach a reliable conclusion has been discussed. This has been done with an in-depth reflection of the research design and other related ethical issues (Moloney, 2006). The research methods and the various research methodologies together with the justification of the instruments and methods and how the correspondents were chosen will also be considered.
The research method used in this research contains the use of primary methods of data collection. The primary method depends on collecting personal data as regards food consumption concerning time, type of meal, place of consumption, the cost of the food. At variables such as whether it is organic or local food as well what food groups are entailed, and the factors that influenced the food choice are also gathered. Some of it as riding on self-opinion was also collected and fully incorporated throughout the research process. Personal Questionnaires’ administration played a very crucial role in ensuring that potential data was collected.
To achieve cohesiveness in the research conclusions reached and the acceptance and easy implementation of the research finding, direct personal interviews and filling of questionnaires were done. This was important since it gave the researcher a great opportunity for the vital information and findings made from the previous researches to be studied and vital findings used in this research (Joshi, 2005).
The choice of questionnaires as a data collection tool was arrived at after close and in-depth consideration of the research goals and the target group (student). Select method of sampling across different times ranging from 6.00 am to dinner time across the year was employed to ensure that reliable information that would be representative of the whole study period was collected. The questionnaire was in the form of an excel sheet to be filled in by the respondent. The use of this method was had essential advantages. Questionnaires are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. Regardless, such standardized answers at times frustrate the users due to their detailed nature.
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A questionnaire with both open-ended and closed-ended questions was used in the collection of data from the select personal sample. Questionnaires drafting was done with a clear understanding of the reliability of diversity of campus students’ eating culture.
Data Collection Process
Data was collected through various methods. The major process of data collection was through the administration of the questionnaire. In addressing the various issues related to the research question two types of data were collected (Joshi, 2005). Primary data collected served different roles even though the ultimate purpose was to bring an in-depth insight into the role of the various dynamics of food intake concerning the environmental preservation/degradation among students on campus.
Data Collection and its Analysis
The researcher used a questionnaire for the gathering of data needed in identifying the dynamics of food consumption concerning the environment among campus. The questionnaire helped in gathering information about costs, food components, place of consumption, time concerns, among others.
Instrument Used For Data Collection
Questionnaires were the major instrument of data collection used. Library findings were also used. To reduce the overall cost of the research process, data was daily filled and utilized in soft copy of the questionnaires to the prospective study sample.
Results and Discussion
The data collected in the research process and the overall results of the data collected has been discussed, represented and analyzed and possible conclusions made in this chapter. The conclusions regarding the data have been made with precise consideration and reference to the available information, the initial goals of the research process and the literature that was reviewed.
Results: Dispersion of the Dynamics of Food Consumption of Sample population
One (1) regular female student who regularly consumes meals on campus participated in the research data collection process. This was a full-time Chinese Second Year Student, who lives off-campus but with roommates. The employment status of the student was working less than 10 hours a week.
Of all the eleven (11) days of understudy, the student only had two breakfasts and dinner meals on campus, with the remaining nine (9) off campuses. On both occasions, the meals were procured only twice on campus, and the rest were done predominantly outside the campus. The dinner meals on-campus cost was between $10.0 to $14.99, while the lunch cost was approximately between $5.00 and $ 9.99. Overall, however, most breakfast taken off-campus was less than $4.99 and dinner less than $10.00. Most of the foodstuff consumed was more of organic type than local. The food components consumed on campus were mostly containing four (4) food types. Interestingly, the range of factors that determined food choice predominantly ran from convenience, price, taste and less of healthy choices and place of production. On the other hand reasons for skipping meals was purely based on time convenience for attending class.
Broadly, the student final reflection depicted three issues: One, she was not satisfied by food choices on campus because she is an international student with little accessibility to her local foods. She became is aware of her trend in food consumption choice as bad/non-nutritional and influenced by her laziness to prepare food for herself. Moreover, she takes similar food type of food across the weeks.
Suitability of the Current Food Intake
It was evident that the majority of the time, the student has various issues regarding how the food type, price, and other factors are handled on campus. She is dissatisfied and has various concerns about the seemingly poor manner in which the food sampling organic versus local foods were made available.
Major issues of Student concern
Various issues were raised by the student. Some of the issues raised were indicated to be very fundamental to the student but also the overall food type available on campus. Issues such available of local foods, high prices, convenience have been raised concerning food intake on campus and outside the campus.
The conclusion from the Data Analysis
Even though the research findings are meant to benefit the University Campus and other related learning institutions, problems such as food type, little time of consumption, price among others could greatly hinder the implementation process of food environmental sustainability. The evidence of the existence of various issues of concern to the students should however demand that the top management of the institution and those concerned with the environment and culinary behaviour consider some of the recommendations made in their efforts geared towards making the eating on campus more attractive and environmentally friendly.
Possible solutions to boost Customer Satisfaction
To enhance the raised issues, proper strategies must be laid out to fully exploit all the existing gaps to ensure responsible and attractive meal consumption on campus by even off-campus students. Following the review of the past journals, books and other internet related materials, it is evident that food consumption is a complex business activity. The Institution’s staff responsible for food consumption and environmentally sustainability ought to set up procedures through which all the concerns of the student’s food consumers would be collected analyzed and necessary feedback implemented (Garner, 2003).
Conclusion and Recommendations
The inherent connection between food and environment as well as culinary behaviour is indisputable. It is more apparent in policy-intervention measures to reduce environmental degradation on campus. Culinary behaviour affects thoughts and the choices that students make when it comes to food intake in or outside the campus. Environmentalists should thus be vigilant in dealing with different behavioural dynamics and environmental policies on campuses. In this, it is important to apart from understanding student needs, to factor in some other aspects such as engaging in community organizations and nutritional expert protection agencies which understand the dynamics of food consumption and to conduct campaigns and outreach programs in schools towards environmental sustainability. Beyond these, despite recreational activities and programs that are based on cultural diversity, requirements and student needs should be considered as a step towards solving environmental issues and promoting sustainability within the campus.
To ensure that the actual success and benefits of this research process are attained, the researcher recommends several issues to be carried out by various stakeholders in the School. Some of the recommendations made here may have been made in other studies. There being mentioned here indicates that they have strong empirical justifications. The key recommendations are;
- The Institution should form a task force to deeply assess various concerns that have been raised in this report to ensure that student culinary and environmental needs are addressed and necessary changes put into place to enhance increased and responsible consumption of food on campus.
- There is a need to factor in environmental sustainability measures around culture, behaviour, student income and garbage collection measures. Moreover, marketing strategies that have in the past been used by the institution and which do not substantially benefit the student culinary behaviour and environmental suitability behaviour should be done away with and very competitive strategies put in place.
- Awareness-creation and raising tools campaigns should be launched to promote healthy eating and environmentally trendy disposal methods (Friedman, 201
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