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Global Governance Institutions in Context of Globalization

Introduction

The global community established a community that was meant to share a culture and some values that would enable the member states to come together and have an environment that would enable them to provide solutions to the global problems to achieve globalization (Wolf 2004). The global governance institutions are identified as the key plays to facilitate the process of globalization.

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Rawls (2001) asserts that “global governance institutions are organs that are established to facilitate political interaction among the member states that is aimed at delivering solutions to problems which affect or are likely to affect a state or a region as a result of lack of enforcement of compliance with power.” However, these global governance institutions either state-based or those that are not state-based should comply with some set standards of democracy and justice (Stiglitz 2006). The purpose of this paper is to find out what these standards are and how they are applied in the context of globalization.

The paper makes a comparison of the traditional concept of justice and democracy and what influence these concepts had on globalization with the modern level of justice and democracy and their applicability to globalization (Goodin and Pettit, 1995). The paper will analyze some of the various standards of justice like the international laws, sanctions against terrorism, and the courts (Rawls, 1999). The paper will also focus on the standard of democracy that can be applied by global governance institutions or societies in the context of globalization, in this context the paper shall consider, accountability, impartiality, and transparency as the standards which should be applied in democracy.

According to (Rawls 1996) justice is a possible but not a necessary way that can bring social order that regulates the life of individual persons. Individual behaviors of either people or states should conform to social order. Rawls (1996) added that “this social order regulates the behavior of men in a way satisfactory to all men, that is to say, so that all men find their happiness in it”. The concept of global justice is based on equity fairness, religion, natural law, and ethics.

The concept of justice has had many debates by the global community. The justice debates in modern society vary from conflict among institutions, states against states, states that are not members of the United Nations against the UN (Rawls 1996). From the early days, the state is the highest-ranked political institution that has the sovereign and the legitimate power to protect its territory from any form of violence. Traditionally the state focused on local justice, for instance, the domestic issues, the state focused on what treatment it would impose on its subjects. During those early days, justice across states or cross-border justice was considered a responsibility of the international community (Caney 2005).

The period after the First World War was characterized by the state’s justice system being changed by globalization and through the creation of economic and political institutions whose mandates on justice administration extended to all states and that these institutions had higher powers than the states (Nardin 1983). These institutions were created with the mandates for introducing global governance for instance the, United Nations, the World Bank, and the League of Nations. From the year 1970, the issue of global justice became a debate that gained major political concern from the nations that were members of the society of states.

The political involvement of states in the context of justice is because the states have the mandates for protecting their territories from any violation of justice. For the sake of global governance, global governance institutions should establish good standards of justice that ensure that there is fair justice across all nations.

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Discussion

Standards of justice for global governance institutions

Justice in the case of global governance is demonstrated through such standards as; international law and courts and law on terrorism and the sanctions against it. According to Shaw (2003), the sources of international law are “international treaties, custom, general principles of law and judicial decisions and teachings”. International treaties are obligations that states agree between themselves voluntarily. Rawls (2001) notes that “customary international law is the law that is derived from practices that states consistently follow.” International law is also derived from judgments made at an international tribunal (Gall, 1990).

After the Second World War, the international law commission was formed and member states of the united nation are signatory to these norms (Kaul, 1999). Members of the United Nations should adhere to these laws in the administration of justice at their local courts or if the related case can also be handled by the international courts (Shaw 2003).

Standards of democracy for global governance

Governance is considered as is the process that involves decision-making in management and leadership activities. Global governance institutions should employ such standards as transparency, accountability, and impartiality to realize globalization. Global governance institutions like the World Bank and the international courts have a major role to play in globalization and this can only be achieved if the standards of justice and democracy are put in place (Steger 2002).

The concept of Global Governance and its relation to globalization

World governance is defined by Stiglitz (2006) as “the complex of formal and informal institutions, mechanisms, relationships, and processes between and among states, markets, citizens and organizations, both inter- and non-governmental, through which collective interests on the global plane are articulated, rights and obligations are established, and differences are mediated.”. Global governance is facilitated by governance institutions that have the power to control and coordinate the social relations among the global populations and afterward enforce decisions. Governance involves cooperation in problem-solving by the united nations of states and other international secretariats (Trebilcock 2004).

According to Gall (1990), “the arrangements to solving problems should be laws that are formally constituted by a variety of actors drawn from a variety of institution such as non-governmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, state authorities, private sector, the civil societies and individuals”

Today global governance involves considering collective measures on the world by forming a system that regulates the many processes that occur beyond the state bonders. Global governance that considers that includes the standards of justice and democracy has had a positive impact on globalization. Globalization is defined by Bhagwati (2006) as “describes a process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade”. Globalization involves integrating national and international economies; this is achieved through capital flow, trade, foreign direct investments, and the exchange of technology (Donnelly, 2003).

Globalization becomes successful by the involvement of socio-cultural factors and political involvement by different states (Murray 2006). Global governance contributes to the process of globalization by it has to control the cross border movement between states, by this way the flow of goods and capital can flow across borders without barriers, only considerable barriers restrict the movement of goods and capital across the borders.

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Steger (2002) asserts that “globalization is not a new term since it started in the nineteenth century but its growth slowed down during the First World War and its growth later continued in the late twentieth century.” The slowed growth of globalization as a result of the policies implemented by some countries which did not favor globalization. These policies were implemented by countries with the main aim of protecting their industries, globalization pace stayed down until the late twentieth century (Steger 2002). During the late twentieth century, global governance had stabilized because nations agreed to work together, and therefore such policies that hindered cross border movement were implemented by the global governance institutions, and this favored globalization (Caney 2005).

Globalization and its possible influence on morality as far as the international sphere is concerned

After there Second World War their state borders were opened to enable trade and increase the rate of interdependence among nations, this would result in chances of war re-occurring reduce because nations were dependent on one another(Murray 2006).

A conference was held by the world’s leading politicians to set a framework that would facilitate trade among nations and also during the same conference several international institutions that would facilitate globalization were founded (Kaul, 1999). These institutions included the World Bank and the international monetary funds, this facilitated trade across borders and provided financial support to the nations and therefore economies of the nations started growing. The increase in globalization was also increased by the growth in technology; this led to the emergence of negative results like brain drain, environmental degradation, income disparity, drugs, and illicit goods trade (Murray 2006).

Globalization and traditional ways of justice

Globalization grows when international relations between states grow; non-governmental organizations help to increase the growth rate of international relations (Keck & Sikkink1997). During the nineteenth century, the states especially in the developing countries did not support the activities of the NGOs. The states are supposed to provide government sponsorship to these NGOs and to facilitate the activities of these NGOs. In the early nineteenth century, the states did not support these activities and in some cases, the states disposed of some of the agreements between the NGOs and international institutions. This displayed a lack of justice for the non-governmental organizations and resulted in to slow pace of globalization (Keck & Sikkink1997).

To have world governance that is deeply rooted in societies it is vital to employ a democratic political ethic at every level of administration and governance. It entails working on both legitimacy and reformation (Karl 1997). Modern knowledge and wisdom stipulate that states will no longer be a source of political battles and power struggles. This can only be true however fall that is done is geared towards transformation of the state to be an instrument for popular development and mobilization and be a state which can nature and enhance democratic capacities which are aimed at carrying the economy to the control of the majority and enable it to structure peoples’ relationships to that of the global economy. If this is realized then an individual can not be able to win state power.

When an individual country wholesomely rejects or refuses strategies that are based on winning as a result of maintaining fights and undercutting others for dignity and justice nationally, the resultant effect will be an inspiration of other nations abroad and creating new political and legitimate space for their struggles. In such kinds of ways, States can therefore buy into the struggle for social justice. The sole hope of social justice is in the particular kind of national-internationalism and not globalization which a state manifests (Karl, 1997).

Conclusion

Global governance institutions have been found to play a major contribution to globalization. The global governance institutions should follow some set standards of justice and democracy. When their democracy and justice states can be interdependent and trade can be done across borders, this is what globalization entails. Global governance institutions like the international courts should implement the international laws fairly to facilitate justice across states and individuals (Rawls, 2001).

Other organizations like the World Bank and international monetary funds should observe governance standards like accountability and transparency to ensure that there is democracy These global governance institutions are organs that are established to facilitate political interaction among the member states that is aimed at delivering solutions to problems which affect or are likely to affect a state or a region as a result of lack of enforcement of compliance with power.

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The need for global governance started after the Second World War and it was during this time that globalization pace grew at a high speed. During the nineteenth century, globalization existed but it grew slowly during the First World War when states realized the importance of globalization many of the states joined the United Nations which is a global governance agency that provides and protection help to states. In conclusion, the success of global governance institutions determines the pace of globalization.

Reference List

Bhagwati, J. 2006. Justification of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.

Caney, S. 2005. Justice Beyond Borders. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Donnelly, J. 2003. Universal human rights in their and practice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Gall, G. 1990. The Canadian legal system. Toronto: Carswell.

Goodin, R. and Pettit, P. 1995. Destructive justice, a companion political philosophy. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishing.

Karl, P. 1997. The great transformation. Boston: Beacon Press.

Kaul, I. et al. 1999. Global public goods. International cooperation in the 21st century. New York: Oxford University Press.

Keck, M. and Sikkink, K. 1997. Transnational issue networks in international politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Murray, E. 2006. Geographies of globalization. New York: Routledge.

Nardin, T. 1983. Law, morality and the relations of states. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Rawls, J. 1996. A theory of justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rawls, J. 1999. A theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University press.

Rawls, J. 2001. The laws of people. Cambridge: Harvard university press.

Shaw, M. 2003. International Law. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Steger, M. 2002. Globalism: the new market ideology. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Stiglitz, J. 2006. Making globalization work. London. Peguin.

Trebilcock, M. 2004. Critiquing the critics of economic globalization. Journal of international laws and international relations, 1 (1-2): 213-238.

Wolf, W. 2004. Why globalization works. New York. Yale University Press.

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StudyCorgi. (2022) 'Global Governance Institutions in Context of Globalization'. 1 January.

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