The notion of “globalization” is related to the process of enlarging cross-border transactions and interactions in political, socio-cultural and economic spheres. It describes the denationalization phenomenon which tends to be perceived as a political project. Globalization in the international political system is considered to be centralized due to its impact on external links and close connection with political structures and mechanisms. The establishment of necessary international regulations and institutions is characterized by the global governance concept being the political response to the economic and social globalization processes.
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Globalization as an Important Issue in the International Politics
The world experiences rapid changes in global politics; globalization politics is considered to be a complex and contradictory structure. Globalization phenomenon covers a great variety of facets; due to this fact political debate is merely focused on economical denationalization:
- The analysis of trade barriers and global integration of world markets;
- The cooperation of transnational companies through which the production processes organization can be observed;
- The increase of cross-border flows;
- Complete integration of financial markets throughout the world; (Jessop, Challenges of Globalization)
The role of globalization issue in international politics is closely connected with the welfare of the states. Some critics argue that the international arena faced deep pressure on the part of globalization. There is a tendency to believe that globalization influences the national ability to fulfill social goals. It is connected with the fact that social security costs and labor protection are borne by the population rather than enterprises being entitled to make various political decisions as to the social objectives spending.
Globalization covers the integration of social, economic and political processes through international borders. What does it mean? Multinational corporations get better access to international markets; the consumers from Europe and the US can be provided with technical support even at the midnight; Detroit Assembly lines are predominantly marketed by companies from Seoul, Tokyo and Munich rather than those of Milan of California because of cheaper prices and appealing production, etc. Despite these facts the process of globalization creates various challenges to established political structures being more potent than previously. It should be stressed that international politics has been organized based on geographical physical control provided by sovereign governments. Globalization provided tensions for the states and world nations enlarging contradictions of politics on the international level (Gartzke, 2006).
One of the important aspects influenced by globalization development is considered to be a democracy. Democracy is aimed at social abilities to solve this or that problem and providing an impact on the political conflicts within the states. The globalization process led to the dissolving of such national opportunities because contemporary conflicts and problems are of international dimension. So, as a result, no social group is entitled to impose any social rules individually concerning the development of the world market and as well as provide protection from the consequences of the nuclear accident.
It should be stated that the establishment of a new political structure on the international level is considered to be a try for recapturing the national societies’ lost autonomy. The world faced the formation of a new democratic challenge as to the way of democratic decision-making ensuring within the international organizations and structures of global governance. The democratic processes legitimacy within the transnational framework is considered to be difficult to reconcile with regional and national identities (Kofman, 2003).
Solutions to Globalization
Contradictions within political systems as to the negative influence of globalization on future political prospects caused the investigation of possible ways out of a problematic situation. The first solution is directed at creating special conditions providing a positive sum game for globalization; it means that everyone can be allowed to take advantage of globalization and become a winner. The second approach concerning the decision making process is aimed at globalization curbing in case it results in injustice. Analyzing these possible ways out one should underline the following policy directions:
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International standards are to be aimed at race-to-the-bottom limitations:
- The global economy is to be managed and influenced through supranational power strengthening;
- Making the state distribution structures being immune to the process of globalization;
- Providing the strengthening of the nation globalization trends;
- Aid and support to weak states in their capacities to cope with the difficulties of globalization.
It was shown that globalization will be beneficial in case framework conditions favor improved economic growth. Nevertheless contemporary framework conditions are considered to be under the threat; the absence of international authorities would allow them to control forces of the global market (Pfaller, 2005).
The Influence of Globalization on International Politics
The formation of globalization left a significant print on the reorganization of international politics. It is important to stress that this phenomenon contributed to the development of the following factors in the political system on the international level:
- Transformations in the postwar types of the states and capitalist economies;
- Transformations of the state dimensions;
- Temporal pressure faced by the states.
It should be noted that globalization brought complete reordering to the political hierarchies. The modern interstate system never considered the state power hierarchy of the sovereign states being territorially exclusive.
Baylis and Smith in their work “The Globalization of World Politics – An Introduction to International Relations” managed to disclose the role of globalization in the international politics. The highlighted the interactions connected with globalization process in future. The authors identified globalization as
“… a historical process involving a fundamental shift or transformation in the spatial scale of human social organization that links distant communities and expands the reach of power relations across regions and continents” (Baylis & Smith, 2005).
The work is aimed at disclosure the position of contemporary political system of the world underlining the characteristics of such global structures as law, contemporary diplomacy, international economy etc. the authors managed to underline the fact that globalization problems fixed in politics are caused by ideas developed within liberation movements, transnational companies and non-governmental organizations. It was stated that the development of terrorism is as well connected with globalization deepening into political structures (Baylis & Smith, 2005).
The analysis of the international political system under the influence of globalization showed that technological aspect and social changer are the principle components of contemporary international relations. It is so, because they are aimed at reflection current developments throughout the world being closely related to political affiliation and engagement. International political cooperation is concentrated on the formation of various communication technologies and international social organizations. Globalizations brought complexity to many spheres of social and political activities. The question of security is considered to become sharper with the development of internet technologies participating in the political activism and various business operations (Gartzke, 2006).
The process of political formation turned to be rather sophisticated. The politics of particular states are linked technologically and economically to state orientations of neoliberal policy. Such aspects as liberalization, deregulation and privatization characterize contemporary political development stages. Besides, modern political system concentrates on environmental issues being completely new for the political agenda; due to this fact political strategies are aimed at the creation of various transnational agreements resulting in the sovereignty limitations. New political action forms result in the establishment of international discussions; the situation brought specifications to the political programs. It is connected with the identification of new disruptions and dangers underlining the role of globalization in the cultural development.
Mark Rupert in the work Globalization and International Political Economy managed to highlight the entrance of the politics into globalized era as a complicated process containing all wide-ranging analysis and being the center of social activities and transformations.
“The politics of globalization include nation-states pursuing power, multinational firms seeking profits for their shareholders, coalitions and networks attempting to promote particular visions of future possible worlds…” (Rupert, 2005).
Thus, the influence of globalization era on the development of international politics and economical structures appeared to be deep and sophisticated being the background for the creation of new political forms and stages in its development.
Contemporary process of globalization is focused on the international transformations in the spheres of politics and economy. It is important to underline the fact that the notion “globalization” is a broad issue being an integral part of every area of social activities. It can be characterized as acceleration of global economical and political interconnections; the analysis of this phenomenon gave an opportunity to evaluate the challenges caused by its development. The paper showed the meaning of the globalized world for the life of individual states and the international cooperation. Large scale changes caused by globalization proved its significant role for the cultural, social, economical and political formation on the international level.
- Baylis, J. and Smith, S. 2005. The Globalization of World Politics – An Introduction to International Relations. Oxford University Press. NY.
- Gartzke, E. A. 2006. International Politics Seminar: Globalization. Political Science. Day and Time.
- Jessop, B. The Future of the State in an Era of Globalization. Challenges of Globalization.
- Kofman, E. 2003. Globalization: Theory and Practice. Continuum International Publishing Group.
- Pfaller, A. 2005. Challenges of Globalization: New Trends in International Politics and Society. Transaction Publishers.
- Rupert, M. 2005. Globalization and International Political Economy: The Politics of Alternative Futures. Rowman and Littlefield.