In South Carolina, top five leading causes of death are heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular issues, unintentional injury, and chronic lower respiratory disease. The list for the United States consists of the same elements, but the only difference is that chronic lower respiratory problems are more prevalent than unintentional injuries (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Overall, it is evident that South Carolina has the same pattern of death causes as the country as a whole.
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Variations Based on Demographic Characteristics
Death causes are different for varying age groups – heart disease is the most prevalent among populations of 45 and older, while individuals between one and 44 years of age struggle more with unintentional injuries (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). The top five are practically the same for the whites and the overall population; for African Americans, however, the fifth leading cause of death is diabetes mellitus (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). In terms of gender, the list is the same for males, but Alzheimer’s disease takes the fifth place for women. Overall, race and gender are not significant determinants of death causes, while there are crucial differences between age groups. Younger population lose their lives more because of unintentional injuries while heart disease and malignant neoplasms are primary contributors to the death of older individuals.
Primary Health Determinants
Based on the list of top death causes, the three most relevant health determinants are availability of resources, public safety, and diet. The main method of preventing heart disease is the primary prevention which focuses on social determinants of health (Gupta & Wood, 2019). Therefore, availability of resources, such as food, shelter, education, and job opportunities, is significant to consider in this context. Health promotion program should aim at preventing a disease rather than reacting to it. By targeting social determinants, the program will become holistic and will address a broad range of illnesses besides heart disease. Unfavorable social circumstances are the primary determinant of unintentional injuries among children (Watson & Errington, 2016). To address the concern, it is also imperative that communities are safe; therefore, public safety should also be considered. Healthy diet is a primary preventative measure for cancer and should be the part of the health program. From these three, the most important is the availability of resources – individuals with adequate education and financial possibilities are more likely to eat healthy food, work, live in safe environments, and regularly screen their well-being.
To have a healthy lifestyle, individuals have to make informed decisions regarding their well-being. To make such choices, people need to be equipped with accurate information on how certain behaviors, food, and environments affect health (Weil, 2020). Therefore, by ensuring everyone has access to quality education and job opportunities, it is possible to elevate well-being on a global level. Major health organizations around the world are working toward devising a framework for alleviating social issues, such as poverty and the lack of education (Weil, 2020). People with no financial possibilities are unable to maintain healthy diet. Lack of public safety hinders well-being significantly as it leads to social deprivation and issues with mental and behavioral health (Grinshteyn, Xu, Manteuffel, & Ettner, 2018). For instance, in communities with higher crime rates, one is more likely to become a victim of an assault. Among the mentioned three health determinants, there are none that may hinder well-being.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Leading causes of death reports, 1981-2018. WISQARS. Web.
Grinshteyn, E. G., Xu, H., Manteuffel, B., & Ettner, S. L. (2018). The associations of area-level violent crime rates and self-reported violent crime exposure with adolescent behavioral health. Community mental health journal, 54(3), 252-258. Web.
Gupta, R., & Wood, D. A. (2019). Primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease: Populations, individuals, and health professionals. The Lancet, 394(10199), 685-696. Web.
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Watson, M. C., & Errington, G. (2016). Preventing unintentional injuries in children: successful approaches. Paediatrics and Child Health, 26(5), 194-199. Web.
Weil, A. R. (2020). Tackling social determinants of health around the globe: A global health equity movement relies upon research showing how social factors affect health. Health Affairs, 39(7), 1118-1121. Web.