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How Inclusive Learning Affects Other Students

Identification of the Research Problem

Educational philosophers and researchers have often mentioned that the term inclusion challenges people’s unexamined concepts of what is common and normal. In the field of education, inclusion means that all students with mental, physical and thinking disabilities are placed in the slightest restraining learning environment. Research experts have often reported that the General Education students are negatively affected by exclusionary classrooms. In an inclusion classroom, one can see a large number of students with emotional/behavioral problems, or physically disabilities engage in the learning process. One of the most significant and controversial problem is that inclusion classrooms is generally based on various kinds of disabilities, special school settings, instructional techniques, and learning theories. Various factors such as difficult curriculum, severe discrepancies between student proficiencies and classroom acquisition, difficulties in content area and instructional modifications negatively affect the learning process of students in a General Education classroom. The online article entitled Issues and challenges for middle school mathematics teachers in inclusion classrooms. Remarks that: “The teachers felt pressure to cover mandated curriculum and did not feel responsible for ensuring the success of included students” (Issues and Challenges for Middle School Mathematics Teachers in Inclusion Classrooms, 2010). The above statement documents the fact that considerable group of people with learning disabilities believe in the fact that inclusion classrooms are not an ideal step for General Education program.

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Symptoms of the Problem

In an inclusion classroom teacher and educational officers have often faced many problems related with academic and non-academic subjects. Students often show the signs of slow learning. Janette k. Klingner remarks that; “Perhaps the greatest barrier to their success in the general education classroom has been a lack of appropriate instruction that yields adequate progress.” (Klingner & Vaughn, 1999).

Teachers often feel to solve language related learning disabilities among the students in inclusion classrooms. It is visible for a reader to understand the problem through the following things. Students read and write slowly and painfully, reveal wide discrepancy between listening and reading comprehensions and difficulty in recalling learned words and phrases. Their careless appearance and hesitation indicates the symptoms of particular learning problems. In a large classroom, students often show the symptoms of learning disabilities. Journal article entitled Learning Disabilities: Signs, Symptoms and Strategies documented that; “The disability may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, write, and spell or to do mathematical calculations” (Binet & Simon, 2003). In inclusion classrooms the teacher may not identify these learning disabilities properly. Otherwise, the existing teaching strategies have given more emphasis on the needs of special education students.

The Problem of Central Auditory Processing Disorder

Children may often show difficulty in dealing and remembering various language related tasks. One can find the serious problem is that these children may not have a struggle in recollecting other non verbal sounds from their surroundings. Some students show the signs of misspell and mispronouncing of some familiar words. Many of the children in General Education classroom may confuse with various languages devises such as figurative language, imagery and symbolism. These children often fail to comprehend complex sentences and language usages. The researcher can find relevant information about learning disabilities fro the web article, Methods For Identifying Learning Disabilities. It argues that; “They have difficulty paying attention to a certain task for a longer time, which is precisely the reason why they are unable to learn” (Methods for Identifying Learning Disabilities, n.d.). The teacher in an inclusion classroom never notices these kinds of learning disabilities from among the normal students. Students without mental or physical disabilities often show the symptoms of passive learning in General Education classrooms.

Materials Related with Learning Disabilities Among the Students in an Inclusion Classroom

Analyzing the learning problems of students in an inclusion classroom one can go through different keywords for research. Major resource which used for searching materials is the study reports entitled Fast Facts published by IES- National Center for Education Statistics (Fast Facts, 1990) than this number of journal articles and online articles contribute number of information about inclusion programs in schools. For getting information researcher uses different search engines such as google.com yahoo.com. Electronic sources have provided current information for the study.

Modification of Keyword Searches

The following words or phrases are modified keywords or phrases in this study. The scope of inclusion programs includes; learning disabilities of both normal and disabled children, problems of gifted children in an inclusion classroom, selection of learning strategies and teaching techniques, current status of learning problems, statistical data about the research topic and the effectiveness of inclusion programs in general education classrooms. The most useful keyword is the implementation strategies and techniques for an inclusion classroom. Existing teaching and learning strategies are not fully helpful for the students disabled and non- disabled. Through the modification of key words the researcher analyses different related areas of inclusion such as the reactions of teachers, students and parents, Administrative difficulties, practical problems, and the impacts of social and ethnic diversities.

Previous studies and researches have mentioned that Instructional strategies for special needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) create disturbance for other students in a General Education classrooms.

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The keywords are modified in to different ways for getting desired outcome. With the help of search engines like Google and yahoo it collected a considerable amount of information. Online journals about the current inclusion programs and its advantages and disadvantages helped the study. Analyzing the comments of teachers and parents about inclusion programs researcher got primary level information. The keyword student’s opinion about inclusion modified in to three:

  1. Problems among the gifted students in an inclusion classroom
  2. Problems among the normal students in an inclusion classroom
  3. Problems of disabled students in an inclusion classroom.

Study reports by IES- National Center for Education Statistics provided necessary information about inclusion programs and that was enough for gaining desired results. Searching about learning difficulties and teaching strategies it grouped the students in to different age limits:

  1. Primary
  2. Secondary
  3. Higher secondary.

As a part of modifying the key word barriers in inclusion programs divided in to different ways such as:

  1. Infrastructure
  2. Teaching strategies
  3. Teaching faculties
  4. Religious and social reasons
  5. Cultural and ethnic backgrounds.

Relevant data were collected through the searching of modified key words and it helped the researcher to get desired outcome.

Perceptions of Instruction in Inclusion Classrooms

Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities helps, the reader to understand more about the learning problems in inclusion classrooms. Janette k. Klingner and Sharon Vaughn remark that;“If, for example, teachers make adaptations to meet the special needs of students with LD in the general education classroom, and these adaptations are viewed as unfair by other students, it is likely that these students will express this point of view in ways that will influence teachers’ future practices” (Klingner & Vaughn, 1999)

The problem of learning disabilities among the school students is increasing day by day. Both mental and physical disabilities affect the General Education program. The journal article named Reading Instruction in the Inclusion Classroom: research-based practices notices that; “These concerns are paramount for students with high-incidence disabilities (i.e., behavior disorders, learning disabilities, mild mental retardation, and speech or language impairments) who constitute about 85% of the approximately 5 million school-age youth classified with disabilities” (Schmidt, Rozendal & Greenman, 2002).

The distinction between gifted children and children with learning disabilities are visible in the field of General Education. Implementation of inclusion programs often requires the children with learning disabilities. In the journal article Highly Gifted Children in Full Inclusion Classrooms, Kathi Kearney notices that; “Although much has been written about inclusion methods for children with disabilities, an examination of inclusionary principles for children who are extremely gifted has not been addressed” (Kearney, 1996).

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Data Evaluation

Evaluation of data is based on the principles of CARS checklist. The journal article entitled Students’ Perceptions of Instruction in Inclusion Classrooms: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities gives credible information about the general perceptions about inclusion classrooms.Author Janette K. Klingner, Ph.D is a professor at the University of Colorado. She is the member of various professional organizations in special education. At present she is working as the chairperson of American Educational Research Association’s Special Education Research Special Interest Group. The author collected the synthesis through analyzing conference reports and dissertations. Statistical data promotes accuracy, comments about teachers and parents convey responsibility and seriousness of the subject. Side stories such as, learning disabilities, teachers responsibility, problems of gifted children support the main topic. The status of learning problem among the children in an inclusion classroom requires serious attention. Inclusion programs concentrate limited areas of knowledge acquisition and they show the tendency to ignore the needs of normal or gifted children. Studies have mentioned that inclusion affects the learning process of a General Education class. This area helps the researcher to get the relevant answers and concepts about the topic.

Annotated bibliography

Klingner, J.K. & Vaughn, S. (1999). Students’ perceptions of instruction in inclusion classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Journal article experts, 66. Web. 

The journal article discusses relevant issues of learning problem in the field of General Education. Authors give accurate information about the impacts of inclusion programs among the students in General Education classroom. It is helpful for the research because of its reliability and content. Disadvantages of this material are that it concentrates a wide area. It affects the accuracy. The author concludes that inclusion programs give equal representation in both students with special needs and others. The material is helpful for further studies. The book is useful for both the educational professionals and teachers who were engaged in inclusion programs.

Kearney, K. (1996). Highly gifted children in full inclusion classrooms. Web. 

Kathi Kearney addresses a controversial issue of the problems of gifted students in inclusion classrooms. The article focused some relevant problems related with General Education program. It discusses the rare subject of the problems of gifted students. The author concludes that a flexible policy is essential for inclusion programs. Inclusion programs satisfy the needs of gifted students also. One of the demerits is that acceptability of this article arouses questions. This article helps educational philosophers and teachers. It helps them to modify their knowledge about the problems of gifted students in an inclusion classroom. The major limitation is that the author discusses limited issues and it avoids the problems of children with learning disabilities.

Issues and challenges for middle school mathematics teachers in inclusion classrooms. (2010). Web.

The online article demonstrates a serious discussion about the role of a teacher in an inclusion classroom in General Education program. The major advantage of this article is its way of analysis. Author never mentions irrelevant things. Author concludes that an effective planning is essential for the implementation of inclusion programs in General Education classrooms. Reader can also find disadvantages in this article. Author concentrates on only one part of the issue. This article is prescribed for teachers who worked in the field of general education. Author expresses a different skill in analysis.

Schmidt, R.J. Rozendal, M.S. & Greenman, G.G. (2002). Reading instruction int the inclusion classroom: Research based practices. Web.

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Reading instruction in the inclusion classroom: research-based practices – Remedial and Special Education gives the existing status of learning disabilities among the children in the General Education classrooms. It is helpful for a researcher to analyze impact of learning problem. One of the major limitations of the study is that it focused on limited areas. Its flexibility and statistical data are enough for higher research. Researchers and educational professionals can refer this material for further knowledge. Author gives correct information about learning problems in general education.

Cook, P.O. (n.d.). Impact of inclusion. Web.

Pamela O. Cook argues the impacts of learning disabilities and the learning problems in General Education field. Author developed ideas with the help of a number of statistical evidences. Author remarks; “More than 95% of students with disabilities are educated in general education schools.” Author concludes the paper that prevention method is essential for the improvement of disabled children. Author ignores the children without special needs. This material is helpful for both the teachers and students. Author concentrates various learning problems in a detailed way and it is highly useful.

Tichenor, M.S. Heins, B. & Piechura-Couture, K. (2000). Parent perceptions of a co-taught inclusive classroom. Web.

The journal article contains relevant information about the problem of learning disabilities among the students in General Education field. The most important advantage of this article is that it considers both students and the parents. Authors conclude that effective organization is essential for General Education program. It remarks;” For example, some parents feel the self-esteem of their children is negatively affected.” The study covers only limited areas. Parents who engaged in inclusion programs can refer this material for their work field. It discusses the role of parents in children’s education and it helps the teachers also.

Walker, K.E. & Ovington, J.A. (1998). Inclusion and its effects on students. Web.

Journal article entitled Inclusion and Its Effects on Students discusses the issue of how inclusion affects the General Education students. Author introduces various techniques and learning theories. Author concludes that the inclusion classrooms require innovative teaching strategies and techniques. The major drawbacks of the study are that the study gives more emphasis on positive effects and it avoids the negative elements. This is highly useful for teachers and educational philosophers because of its serious effort to identify the existing issues. Information about innovative learning techniques helps the teacher very well.

Lieberman, L.J. James, A.R. & Ludwa, N. (2004). The impact of inclusion in general physical education for all students. Journal Article Excerpt 75. Web.

This article points out that all inclusion process make benefits for all students. Inclusion gives equal position and equal education for students, especially those with disabilities. One can get an over all evaluation in this article. Authors use a technical language and easily convey the main ideas to the reader. One can see that the absence of statistical data is an important limitation. Author discusses about the benefits of inclusion program in classrooms. It is useful for teachers and parents equally. Teachers can modify their teaching methods. Parents can ensure their role in education process. Lack of statically evidence creates some problems.

Benefits of inclusion. (n.d.). 2010. Web.

This article explained that all students’ activities are related to their school. The regular education is one of the important concerns of all students. So, the inclusive education is given a suitable and normal education for disabled people. This method is not only for disabled students but also it gives the importance to all students. It assumes that all students study in general classroom in their school. This article is useful both the supporters and opponents of inclusion programs. It is a good guide for parents and teachers. General evaluation is good and acceptable.

Crawford, D.B. (2002). Full inclusion: One reason for opposition. Web.

This article points out that the topic about the need of implementing full inclusion programs in general education classrooms. Full inclusion policy is promote to all students should be educated in general education class room and it also give the importance to success for all student. Full inclusion is a philosophical movement based on the success of all students. It is highly useful because the term full inclusion is not a popular one among the people. Educational philosophers and other professionals can get valuable information’s about full inclusion. Author concludes that the implementation of full inclusion program help the teachers to direct students in desired level. The paper gives less importance in practical issues. The disadvantage is it avoids practical side of the issue. Theoretical side is convincing.

CARS Checklist

Name of the article Credibility Accuracy Reasonableness support
Students’ perceptions of instruction in inclusion classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities Authors give accurate information about the impacts of inclusion programs among the students in General Education classroom It gives relevant sources. date of publication is April 01, 2010, from Authors give accurate information about the impacts of inclusion programs among the students in General Education classroom It listed number of information
Authors give accurate information about the impacts of inclusion programs among the students in General Education classroomJournal article experts 66. 
Highly gifted children in full inclusion classrooms It discusses the rare subject of the problems of gifted students. It published on 1996 but its information is relevant and it helps the study. Author is the founder of The Hollingworth Center for Highly Gifted Children and working as an education consultant. Highly gifted children in full inclusion classroom
ms. It listed many information that helps the researcher.
Issues and challenges for middle school mathematics teachers in inclusion This article is published by School Science and Mathematics Association, Inc. it discusses relevant issues. It collects data through interviews and face to face discussion. I analyses survey reports. It’s information are important and helps educational professionals to solve the problems of inclusion classrooms. In many ways it supports the research. Collect information from schools and and other social institutions. It conducted surveys and interviews.
Reading instruction int the inclusion classroom: Research based practices Writers have worked deputed institutions such as Buffalo State College-State University of New York and Clarence Public Schools Information is relevant and is closed to the research arguments. It is comprehensive and avoids vagueness. The research conducted in authorized schools therefore data are relevant and it helps the researcher Reading instruction in the inclusion classroom: Research based practices. Gale Group. 

It listed information related with the research topic.

Impact of inclusion Author Pamela O. Cook is working Special Education Teacher at Jefferson Elementary School, York, SC
Stephen B. Richards is an Associate Professor in Special Education at the University of Dayton
The article is a quality product. It evaluates the process of inclusion in general education classrooms. It helps number of material facts in this article. Authors have been working the field of special education therefore the research helps students.

References

Binet, A. & Simon, T. (2003). Assessment of basic psychological processes. Web.

Fast facts. (1990). Web.

Issues and challenges for middle school mathematics teachers in inclusion classrooms. (2010). Web.

Kearney, K. (1996). Highly gifted children in full inclusion classrooms. Web.

Klingner, J.K. & Vaughn, S. (1999). Students’ perceptions of instruction in inclusion classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Journal article experts, 66. Web.

Methods for identifying learning disabilities. (n.d.). 2010. Web.

Schmidt, R.J. Rozendal, M.S. & Greenman, G.G. (2002). Reading instruction int the inclusion classroom: Research based practices. Web.

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