The literature review is based on the research topic How Inclusion Effects General Education Students and it is a guide for teachers and researchers. Researcher is a master level researcher who studied about the effects of inclusion in general education students. Previous studies and researches have often mentioned that inclusion have both advantages and disadvantages. It is crystal clear that Inclusion programs concentrate specific instructional settings, learning outcomes, instructional objectives and students. Constraint nature of inclusionary classrooms requires students with learning disabilities.
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The research topic needs a deep analysis of various sources and relevant side stories about the learning problems of both disabled children and normal students. Researcher’s professional settings demands further research in various topics such as problems of normal and disabled children in inclusion classrooms, teacher’s perceptions about inclusion program in general education classroom, parent’s perception on inclusionary classrooms.
Review of the literature
Having compared and contrasted some of the literature in relation to the inclusion effects general education students, it is clear that a range of perspectives are examinable. In relation to inclusion and its affects on general education students, it is presented with an array of perceptions, arguments, and documentations. Researcher gave more emphasis on the selection and organization of various sources. Relevant materials from journal articles, online journals, books and other magazine articles are used in this literature review. Research materials provide significant support to the researcher and the side stories give reliability and accuracy.
Organization of the literature review using sections that relate to parts of your research question
Literature review divides in to different sections based on various branches of the research topic. First part of the literature review demonstrates the impacts of inclusion programs in general education classrooms. Second part discusses the influence of human behaviors in the special inclusion programs. Next portion of the literature review gives a detailed description about perceptions on teachers and parents about the effects of inclusion in general education students. Finally it gives an account of barriers and restrictions which exist in the field of general education. Each part in this literature review analyzes the sum and substance of the research topic.
The impacts of inclusion programs in general education classrooms
Studies prove that the general education students will show better acceptance than the students with disabilities without being concerned of their disabilities. They shower more anxiety when the disabled students were not in a position to do certain things. They can find themselves at ease with the disabled students. The journal article titled Is Full Inclusion of Disabled Students Desirable? Documented that; “Full inclusion benefits both disabled and non disabled students. One potential benefit for non disabled children is improvements in their self-esteem. They also learn to be more accepting and tolerant of others.” (Is full inclusion of disabled students desirable? n.d., para.6). They will also attain leadership and guiding abilities. The studies regarding inclusion has also proved that it brings out enhanced post-school results. The general students provide a sense of sense of belonging to the disabled students. They would be able to live in the society in a more socialized manner and will also not develop a kind of superiority with respect to the disabled students. In addition to all these they can be in a position to live in the society as better human beings.
It is a part of previous studies that inclusion programs have often create hindrance to the learning process of students without learning disabilities. The journal article entitled Students’ Perceptions of Instruction in Inclusion Classrooms: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities helps the reader to understand more about the learning problems in inclusion classrooms. Janette k. Klingner and Sharon Vaughn remark that;” If, for example, teachers make adaptations to meet the special needs of students with LD in the general education classroom, and these adaptations are viewed as unfair by other students, it is likely that these students will express this point of view in ways that will influence teachers’ future practices.” (1999, para.2). Because of inclusion the teachers associated with the general education students find themselves overburdened. This eventually affects their output which may be of less quality and this ultimately affects the general education students who may get lesser guidance from their teachers inclusion program introduces innovative teaching strategies and instructional techniques for various students. These methods satisfy the basic needs of the students. Journal article entitled Inclusion and Its Effects on Students discusses the issue of how inclusion affects general education students. Author introduces various techniques and learning theories. Author concludes that inclusion classrooms require innovative teaching strategies and techniques. Kay E. Walker , June A. Ovington notice that; “The issue of inclusion and how it effects students is important because our schools must provide the best education possible for all its students.” (1998, para.3). The study gives more emphasis on positive effects and it avoids the negative elements.
The influence of human behaviors in the special inclusion programs
Positive and negative advantages of inclusion among the students in general education paved the way for active debates and discussions. People have often show positive and negative symptoms towards the process of implementing inclusion classrooms. Various factors such as social, religious, economical, and psychological influence the perceptions of the people. Students with learning disabilities welcome inclusion programs. Gifted children often feel disturbance in an inclusion settings. In their joint effort entitled Inclusion and the Law: A Principal’s Proactive Approach.
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Monica Conrad and Todd Whitaker discuss various impacts of inclusion among the teachers in general education. Monica Conrad and Todd Whitaker argue that; “At first glance, inclusion may seem to be an overwhelming approach, particularly to regular classroom teachers, who in general, view their workload as already at a barely manageable limit.” (1997, para.2). They may also not be in a position to achieve the approved victory. The frustration of the teachers makes it unattainable to teach in a straight and disinterested way.
The distinction between gifted children and children with learning disabilities are visible in the field of general education. Implementation of inclusion programs often requires the children with learning disabilities. In the journal articleHighly Gifted Children in Full Inclusion Classrooms, Kathi Kearney notices that; “Although much has been written about inclusion methods for children with disabilities, an examination of inclusionary principles for children who are extremely gifted has not been addressed.” (1996, para.7).
Perceptions on teachers and parents about the effects of inclusion in general education students
Teachers and parents who familiarized with general education settings have often support or oppose the process of implementing inclusion programs in their children’s learning program. Teachers can get the opportunity to understand innovative instructional techniques and strategies. Inclusionary classrooms require maximum potential from the part of the teacher. In an inclusionary classroom teacher will handle both disabled students and non-disabled students in a common instructional settings. When there are additional teachers the general education students get better opportunities for developing their talent and knowledge. They will be in a position to understand the students with disabilities and become more broadminded and can show tolerance kindness towards the students with disabilities and also become aware about the problems they face in the society. Rebecca A Hines mentions; “The authors further contend that general education students also benefit from inclusion. For these students, inclusion:
- offers the advantage of having an extra teacher or aide to help them with the development of their own skills;
- leads to greater acceptance of students with disabilities.” (2001, p.1).
They try to recognize the resemblance between them and the disabled students and can accept and mingle with them easily which would have not been possible in the absence of inclusion. This enhances the integration between them and allows them to help the disabled students. Integration between students proved desirable learning outcome in the existing system of education. The discrepancy between disabled students and non-disabled students creates barriers in the process of knowledge acquisition. Development of effective communication skill is essential for elementary students. Possibility of experimental learning, multicultural education is also a part of inclusion classroom.
The teachers are the main instructor of student in general education settings. A well trained teacher and special education teacher are helping only their own student and they often ignore their chances to instruct other students. This deference is resulted the special teacher was not able to get in other all classes. The inclusion programs are especially recommended to disabled students. At the same time this process is create impact of non-disabled peoples also. Pamela O. Cook asserts; “One variation of this approach involved the special education teacher focusing assistance only on those students who had Individualized Education Programs. This variation resulted when the special educator was not able to participate in the class for the entire period.” (Impact of inclusion, n.d., p.2). The disabled students suffer from different problems. They make inaccurate sentences and use wrong languages. They are mentally and physically disordered. In case of their learning they become very differ from general school students.
Barriers and restrictions which exist in the field of general education
Implementation of inclusion programs in general education classrooms requires effective planning and organization. Number of practical issues makes barriers in implementing inclusion techniques in normal classrooms. The problems of non-disabled children and gifted children are issues with vital attention. Organization and the availability of infrastructure play an inevitable role in inclusion programs. The task of categorizing the disabled students on the basis of their disabilities becomes difficult for the administration. It has also been found that the categorization is often unreliable and is of less value. The web article entitled Educational Support for Inclusion provides relevant information about the practical issues in inclusionary classrooms. It remarks; “The separate administrative arrangements for special programs contribute to a lack of coordination, raise questions about leadership, cloud areas of responsibility, and obscure lines of accountability within schools.” (Inclusion: The pros and cons: Educational support for inclusion, 2010, para.6).
The different organizational method brings less harmonization. The liabilities of the schools become unclear because of this. The teachers who guide disabled students are trained in places different from that of the teachers guiding general education students which results in lower synchronization between them and eventually this results in improper guidance to the students.
Various traditions relating to inclusion insert to the difficulty which most of the teachers undergo in creating a thriving inclusive atmosphere. The teachers dealing with general education students may also find it difficult to cop up with the different methods and strategies followed by the other teachers. Because of this they may not be in a position to see to it that the personal differences amongst the students is not properly recognized and appreciated. It has also been interpreted that inclusion is looked into as a cause and more significance is given to the philosophy rather than giving significance to the personality of the children and their requirements.
The teaching methods used for special education students are entirely different compared to the general education students. Therefore the equipments used are different and these have to be presented in various methods. This requires a huge amount of time from the part of the teachers for guiding the special education students. Eventually this will cause the teachers to concentrate more on the special education students which ultimately reduces the time taken to teach the general education students. The journal article entitled Cost of inclusion comments that; “Since class sizes are not reduced when full inclusion is in place, teachers can’t devote proper amounts of time to any students. For example, if a child with limited mobility is placed in a general education classroom, the teacher will have to constantly be ensuring that this child is safe, inarguably taking time away from general education students.” (The cost of inclusion, n.d., para.6).
A methodical and well organized teaching becomes impracticable which may result in unsatisfactory guidance to the general education students which ultimately reduce their educational quality.
Educational philosophers have noticed the fact that full inclusion is a philosophical movement and it provides good education and same general class rooms for disabled student. The policy of full inclusion states that all students are equal, consequently all students should be educated in same general education class room. Donald B. Crawford, Ph.D. remarks; “In addition, once full inclusion is implemented, teachers are forced to change their teaching methods to more child-directed, discovery-oriented, project-based learning activities in which every student works at his or her own pace.” (n.d., para.15).
So the teachers are tried to change their old teaching methods and style of teaching and try to establish innovative teaching strategies. These changes is very useful to all student.but some time teachers lack of knowledge is make problems in students life. Scarcity of financial aids and funds needs urgent attention. Inclusionary classrooms can have number of students with physical and mental disabilities. Preparation of comfortable classrooms requires serious discussions.
To conclude, Inclusionary classrooms permit effective integration between disabled students and non-disabled students. Studies have mentioned that Inclusion has negative and positive impacts. In general education settings inclusion requires active participation of teachers, parents, and school administers.
Conrad, M., & Whitaker, T. (1997). Inclusion and the law: A principal’s proactive approach. JSTOR. Web.
Crawford, D.B. (n.d.). Full Inclusion: One Reason for Opposition. 2010. Web.
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Hines, R.A. (2001). Inclusion in middle schools. Eric Digest, p.1. Web.
Impact of inclusion. (n.d.). 2010. Web.
Inclusion: The pros and cons: Educational support for inclusion. (2010). SEDL. Web.
Is full inclusion of disabled students desirable? (n.d.). Shae Hare. 2010. Web.
Kearney, K. (1996). Highly gifted children in full inclusion classrooms. Web.
Klingner, J.K., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Students’ perceptions of instruction in inclusion classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Journal Article Experts, 66. Web.
The cost of inclusion. (n.d.). Full Inclusion. 2010. Web.
Walker, K.E., & Ovington, J.A. (1998). Inclusion and its effects on students. Web.