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Islam: The Different Perspectives

Chapter 5 Summary

Islam is a way of life, the basis of family and legal relations, a set of traditions and customs. The main principles and essence of Islam are the following points: among the tenets of Islam is monotheism, the most authoritative source of Islamic belief and practice is the Qur’an. Moreover, one central theological idea that Muslims and Christians agree on is an inherent difference between the Creator (God) and creation. However, in this sense, it should be emphasized that the concept of “Arab equals Muslim and Muslim equals Arab” is only partially valid, and therefore does not fully reflect the true religious diversity in Islamic regions (George-Tvrtkovic, 2017, p. 80). The unity and diversity of Islam are two of the most significant aspects. Muslims worldwide are unified in their belief in one God, his prophets, and writings and their observance of the five pillars, regardless of the language they speak or the nation.

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It should be noted that there are five pillars of Islam. The Shahada, or declaration of faith, is Islam’s first pillar. Salat is the second pillar, and it means prayer. Zakat, or almsgiving or charity, is the third pillar. The word zakat means purification, and it refers to a contribution that makes the remainder of one’s possessions lawful and religiously clean. Sawm, or fasting, is the fourth pillar of Islam. It is known that “fasting involves worship as well as meditation and spiritual self-discipline” (Raheema & Mohd Omar, 105). The Hajj, or pilgrimage, is Islam’s last pillar.

Reflective aspect

The vast majority of Muslims are Sunnis. Sunnis adhere to their accepted set of hadiths, religious practices, and rules of conduct for a Muslim in all life situations, calling this set the Sunnah. This is not just a custom but a vital principle based on which the whole life of a person who confesses to Islam is built.


The question that interests me is whether the five pillars of Islam are universal for all its schools and branches, or whether some deny them?

Chapter 6 Summary

There are three main things that I would like to highlight from this chapter. First, it is the role of human beings and what it is. Before they were given bodies, all human beings were the addresses of the divine word in their spirit form. Thus, “the earth is created and preparate by God for human beings as a palace” (Zaritoprak, 2017, p. 93). Moreover, “it is clear that some divine secrets and knowledge can only be comprehended and achieved by those who have a healthy body and sound minds” (Raheema & Mohd Omar, 107). Human spirits were formed at the beginning of creation, according to Islamic doctrine. Muslims must follow God’s path of compassion and mercy and never doubt God’s kindness and compassion. Because of God’s mercy, Islamic doctrine forbids hopelessness. Even though one’s sins are massive, there is still hope, and one should pray for God’s mercy. As a result of this divine compassion, Islam teaches that one must also be compassionate to God’s creatures.

Furthermore, this world will be replaced with a new one, and individuals will be interrogated about their experiences on the planet. People who have had a successful connection with God will be in paradise, whereas those who have had a failed relationship with God will be in hell. Regardless of this basic concept, only God can determine an individual’s eventual destiny.

Reflective aspect

It is not difficult to accept Islam. It does not take much time and does not require a special place. If a person has understood and recognized with their heart the basics of the Islamic faith to accept Islam, only the necessary is to pronounce Islamic assertions.

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What are the main differences between the eschatology of Islam and Christianity?


George-Tvrtkovic, R. (2017). An outsider’s perspective. In Valkenberg, P. (Ed.) World Religions in Dialogue (pp. 79-92). Anselm Academic.

Raheema, C. C. Z., & Mohd Omar, M. M. (2018). Five Pillars of Islam in relation to physical health, spiritual health and nursing implications. IIUM Medical journal Malaysia, 17(1), 105-108.

Zaritoprak, Z. (2017). An insider’s perspective. In Valkenberg, P. (Ed.) World Religions in Dialogue (pp. 93-102). Anselm Academic.

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