Typical activity patterns in managerial work
It has been revealed that managers usually do not have definite patterns of their activities in their managerial work. Sometimes, managers may spend their free time alone in their offices, interact with their juniors/ subordinates, or attend scheduled and unscheduled meetings. Importantly, some consistency has been observed in most of the activities managers engage in, only that the time spend in each activity remains not tightly scheduled. It should be noted that some managerial activities are retroactive in the sense that they initiate others. For instance, a meeting attended may require immediate action in the regular activities in their organizations, resulting in unplanned action.
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Descriptive research on managerial decision making, planning, and problem-solving
Descriptive research has revealed that managerial decision making, planning, and problem-solving processes are entirely time-consuming as managers reflect on various possible outcomes of such activities. Sometimes, managers take a long time to respond to a problem or make a decision as they need time to analyze the problem or a situation before taking an action. During their planning, managers usually incorporate several junior officers to facilitate effective planning and decision making. As has been observed, many of the decisions made are disorderly and political. Generally, managers have been revealed to make critical decisions, plan for some action, or solve a certain problem about the pressure exerted for immediate action.
Mintzberg’s 10 managerial roles
As it has been revealed managers are entrusted with various roles to enhance congruence and consistency in their work. Concerning the Mintzberg’s managerial roles, managers are leaders in their organization’s win which they guide various activities to all the subordinates in the organization. Secondly, managers are liaisons in their organizations by establishing and maintaining relationships between the internal and external environments of their organizations. Thirdly, managers are figureheads of their organizations in which they represent their organizations in both social and legal activities. Fourthly, managers should monitor the important indicators of their organizations’ progress. The fifth role of managers in social organizations is to act as a disseminator of important information for their organizations.
Further, managers are spokespeople for their organizations, in which they transmit and express various values of their organizations. The seventh role of managers is to act as entrepreneurs in which they allocate the organizations’ resources effectively for maximum production. The eighth role of managers is to act as disturbance handlers in cases of crises and any unexpected events in their organizations. The ninth role of managers is to allocate resources well in priority of the need for maximum production in their organizations. Lastly, managers should negotiate with the subordinates in various management practices within the organization. It should be noted that all roles of a manager are equally important, only that some are more frequent than others.
Managerial behavior influenced by the nature of the job situation
It has been revealed that many managerial behaviors are greatly influenced by the nature of the job situation. The level of management has been found to impact a lot on the behavior of various managers. It should be noted that managers at lower ranks of management are always more committed than managers in higher ranks. This is because lower-ranked managers are more involved in policy implementation than high-rank managers.
Managerial activities and behavior affected by the level of management, unit size, and lateral interdependence
The size of the organizations has been revealed to impact a lot on the behavior of many managers. Managers in large organizations have more demanding roles than those in smaller organizations. With fewer subordinates and activities to supervise, managers in smaller organizations usually have more free time than as it is with managers in larger organizations. Managers in larger organizations are usually overloaded with commitments of meetings and decision-making processes since they are entrusted with more resources to manage than as it is with managers from smaller organizations.
The effects of a crisis on managerial activities and behavior?
During times of crisis, managers have been found to work under pressure either to meet deadlines or rescue the organization from a certain calamity. In times of crisis, the subordinates and other officials in lower ranks expect the managers to direct them and be much involved in the problem-solving process. On this basis, managers are more committed during times of crisis than during non-crisis times.
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The organizational life cycle affecting the importance of different managerial functions and activities
It has been observed that the organizational life cycle affects the relative importance of different managerial functions and activities. During the initial stages of development, organizations demand a lot of attention from managers to ensure proper resource allocation. During this stage, the manager should involve his/her subordinates in the policy implementation process in the organization. As the organization grows, the managers find it even more challenging to restructure and reallocate resources as well as maintaining the balance between the internal environment of the organization and the external demands. At maturity level, the managers are less burdened since every process and activity has taken its course, requiring less attention from the manager.
Managers as “captains of their destiny” or “prisoners of their fate”
The outcome of managerial work among managers is largely dependent on the choices made by the managers. It has been revealed that managers define their roles independently in their way in terms of time and resource allocation, by the understanding of their jobs’ demands. Though the trends in the society like globalization and employee diversity may impact a lot on the outcome of managerial work, managers to an extent can be described as determinants of their fate. This is due to the autonomy they have in their managerial work, about their priorities.
Managers’ challenges with their time
Managers are usually faced with diverse forces in their work which interferes greatly with their planned schedules. As a result of interferences, managers are usually preoccupied with numerous activities to attend, making it difficult for them to manage time. Since some activities require more immediate action than others, it leaves managers with no option but to attend to the most immediate problems first, even if that was not the planned schedule. Generally, many managers find it hard to manage their time effectively due to their commitment in day to day activities, leaving them with no time to reflect in time planning.
Ways to improve time management and problem-solving
To improve time management and enhance effective problem solving, managers ought to devise a model to help them in their managerial work. Determining what is to be accomplished within a specific period forms the initial basic stage for successful time management. The manager should then analyze on how he/she uses his/her time and then plan accordingly, leaving enough chances for any unexpected happenings. By avoiding unnecessary activities, the manager would be facilitating efficient time utilization in the organization’s activities.
To facilitate successful problem solving within an organization, the manager should incorporate his/her subordinates in strategizing on how to solve certain problems effectively. By clearly identifying the problems to be solved and the subsequent causes of such problems, the manager would be able to establish solving strategies about the sources of the problems. through taking decisive actions to deal with the problems that arise, managers would always find it efficient to deal with times of crisis.