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Mental Disorders: General Information

Mental Disorders

Mental disorders are conditions that impact the behavior, moods and thinking of the patients. The disorders consequently affect daily routine practices in which individuals are engaged. Mental health for a long time has been ignored, with the focus set on physical conditions (Cherry, 2020). However, recently psychiatric illnesses have earned consideration as emergency cases. Several risk factors have been attributed to mental disorders, and they include traumatic brain damage, history of abuse, stress, being lonely or family history.

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Major Categories of Mental Disorders

Mental illness is a broad subject that is clustered into various types depending on the signs and symptoms. However, there are main categories under which other minor psychiatric diseases are classified. Anxiety disorders are the most common condition affecting a large population of individuals. They are characterized by extreme distress, fear, and panic, which are demonstrated in a person (Cherry, 2020). Some of the examples include; panic, generalized, and post-traumatic stress disorders. Mood disorders are indicated by mood swings, sadness, and hopelessness, for example, dysthymia, major depression, bipolar, and substance-induced disorders. Psychotic disorders are another cluster in which a patient lacks a sense of reality (Woo & Keatinge, 2016). The most common diseases under this type encompass schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and delusion disorders. The other main category is dementia attributed to cognitive impairment, for instance, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Lastly, eating disorders are among the major types of mental illness; unhealthy eating habits demonstrate them. Some examples are bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, binge eating, and pica eating.


Appropriate diagnosis of mental disorders facilitates an effective treatment regimen. Mental illnesses are diagnosed using the DSM5 criteria based on the symptoms presented. Mental Status Examination (MSE) is utilized to assess and differentiate between various psychotic conditions. The psychiatrist holds the question and answers session with the client, and tries to find out the symptoms. A physical exam is conducted to confirm body health problems that could be causing the mental symptoms. Laboratory examinations such as thyroid and liver function tests are utilized to evaluate drug substance abuse (Woo & Keatinge, 2016). Abnormal functioning of the thyroid can be expressed by psychotic, anxiety and other cognitive symptoms.


Effective treatment of mental disorders involves the integration of psychiatric medications and psychotherapy. The management help improve the symptoms, including anti-anxiety drugs, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood-stabilizing agent (Woo & Keatinge, 2016). Psychotherapy generally involves discussing with clients their conditions and guiding them on coping mechanisms. It involves family, group, and occupational therapy for relieving the patient of the symptoms. Psychotherapy requires open sharing of feelings hence ease stress.


Cherry, K. (2020). Explore a list of psychological disorders from the DSM-5. Verywell Mind. Web.

Woo S. M., & Keatinge, C. (2016). Diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders across the lifespan. John Wiley & Sons.

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