Multifactorial or complex diseases can stem from several factors as it becomes clear from the title. It may be a genetic impairment or unhealthy lifestyle habits, inheritance, or a combination of them. For example, heart disease can be called multifactorial because there can be many issues that cause the heart to malfunction like inherently high blood pressure, or defects in its structure, smoking, alcohol, or stress (Stöppler, 2016).
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Hardy-Weinberg law is a population genetics model theorizing that in an infinitely large population of species where natural selection is non-active there are no mutations, crossbreeding, genetic drifts, and all genotypes will encounter equally (Masel, 2012). In selection, it can help define the genetic potential of a biological population. Since different species feature a unique allele frequency fund, it could be calculated. This would allow us to determine if the genetic material is right for a chosen allele to be expressed.
Application of Hardy-Weinberg Law to Human Populations
In medicine, the theory can help assess the risk of genetic diseases development in a population. For example, the knowledge of the frequency of unfavorable alleles makes it possible to calculate the risks of a sick child being born. Additionally, knowing the regularity of birth of such children one could define the structure of the allele frequency fund.
Effects of Mutation, Migration, Genetic Drift, and Natural Selection on Genetic Variation
In the right environment, Mutation can sometimes enhance the resistance of a population towards negative factors. The continuous gene migration can affect the differences between two species negatively influencing their genetic variation and creating a similar gene pool. Genetic drift is a process of changing allele frequency because of random sampling. Allele frequency can affect, for instance, the appearance of the same species in different populations. Natural selection could produce adaptive changes that in their turn could also alter the gene pool.
Types of Reproductive Isolation
According to Mayr (1963), there are two general ways to keep the population from the coupling. They are classified into pre-zygotic and post-zygotic. The former encompasses physical and physiological barriers like distant environments or different mating seasons. The second barrier usually manifests in the form of incompatibility of populations. These mechanisms ensure the variety of species and the possibility of new species development.
Speciation is a process that allows new forms of the biological population to emerge. New specimens ensure that forms of life are adapting to a changing world environment. Thus, it ensures that life exists in some form in any circumstances.
Models in Studying Population Genetics
Models in any sphere help structure and analyze the theoretical and practical knowledge in different areas. In Population Genetics, it allows to critically assess the current data and see if everything fits. If it does not, then the theoretical knowledge needs revision and new studies. Therefore, models enable the continuous comparison of the new data with existing ones.
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Use of Gene Therapy for Correction of Genetic Disorders
Natural selection gave us a powerful mechanism to change the environment around us. The possibilities of the human brain enabled us to find cures for hundreds and thousands of diseases. The advancements in medicine and gene therapy allowed us or will soon allow us to treat genetic disorders. This is, in a sense, also an evolution. Therefore, humanity can and should continue to progress in this sphere and others.
Masel, J. (2012). Rethinking Hardy–Weinberg and genetic drift in undergraduate biology. BioEssays, 34(8), 701-710.
Mayr, E. (1963). Animal species and evolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Stöppler, M. (2016). Genetic Diseases Overview. Web.