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Obesity, Cardiovascular and Inflammatory Condition Under Hormones


The essay discusses heart-related diseases and the obesity conditions in the human body. It shows the correlation between the different conditions and how they affect the functioning of other body organs. In addition, it looks into the action of peptides in various diseases and the response of the organs. The essay also explains the ghrelin hormone and how it affects the cardiovascular system. It discusses the effect of fatty tissues and their relation to the ghrelin hormone. The paper also reviews anti-inflammatory suppressants’ action and the ELISA test’s beneficial properties.

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The Peptide Action

The cardiovascular system involves the heart, the pumping mechanism, and blood that ensures the transportation of oxygen and nutrients to the whole body. The blood vessels are also part of the cardiovascular system and carry blood to critical points. The relationship between cardiovascular and glucagon-like peptides is based on the fact that the receptors are included in a good standard of the anti-hyperglycemic components closely linked to cardiac activities (Al Batran, Almutairi and Ussher, 2018, p. 97). The glucagon is produced in the gut after food consumption. The glucagon helps conserve the neuronal cells that ensure thorough communication with other body cells through synapses. The glucagon obstructs the neuronal disintegration that makes the neurons function as they are supposed to operate. It also has an anti-inflammatory impact on the liver cell and preserves it against disorders like steatosis. Glucagon also stimulates the level of insulin sensitivity and leads to an increase in the loss of appetite.

Obesity is a body illness caused by too much fat, increasing the risk of diseases. Glucagon serves as a controller of gastric discharging and operates as an incretin hormone that activates insulin production and prevents glucagon emission from the human pancreas. Glucagon deficiency may lead to increase levels of gastric emission and reduced satiety, resulting in obesity conditions. Additionally, the relationship between the inflammatory markers and hormones with glucagon is that the incretin hormone stimulates the production of insulin and glucose, decreasing the provocative situations. Incendiary provocations like the endotoxin hormones can activate glucagon production. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are the likely conditions to occur in seriously affected patients. Glucagon-like peptides correlate with the immune system and the gut, important for metabolic control and inflammation.

Cardiovascular diseases have been ranked among the top killer disease worldwide. The peptide development functions the same as mediators in the neurotic processes in destroying the vascular system. The different peptide cells help transport and process cholesterol in the atherosclerosis process (Hong et al., 2017, p. 27). The use of the peptide cell has proved to pose pharmacological benefits. For instance, they are safe and can withstand different cardiovascular conditions as well they function efficiently. The peptide cell serves to operate under the influence of another sub-component towards the action of cardiovascular disease.

Effect of Ghrelin Hormone

Ghrelin is a growth and development hormone that releases peptides in the body and activates food consumption. Ghrelin helps regulate different body functions: appetite control and management, balancing and equalizing body energy. It also ensures the maintenance of body weight, fat breakdown, the inflection of the gastric system, and cardiovascular operations. Ghrelin activates the brain and makes sure that metabolism activities are slowed, and this causes the body’s inability to burn fat contents (Straub and Wolfrum, 2017, p. 2). The ghrelin opposes the leptin hormone produced in the fat cells and ensures the body’s metabolic process. It regulates and controls the body weight by motioning the brain to reduce appetite and promote the burning of more calories.

Ghrelin is an immune-regulatory hormone and offers a good viewpoint for its importance in the body’s metabolic processes. In the case of obesogenic conditions, ghrelin levels are decreased with an associated initiation of chronic low-class inflammation. Ghrelin is divided into two, the diacyl mode with more stability and a high serum content. In previous research, this hormone has demonstrated prominent cardioprotective effects, for instance, regulating the sympathetic drive to the heart, counteracting vascular and endothelial function impairments, and promoting reductions in blood pressure (Yuan, Li and Zhong, 2021, p. 1). The acyl-ghrelin has certain biologically sensitive effects on peptide activity. It activates the growth hormone and enzyme production in the pituitary glands. The acyl form stimulates the hypothalamic products, which offer regulation of different metabolic processes in the body. The acyl-ghrelin form leads to the development of neuropeptides protein-related, which causes minimized energy wastage. Ghrelin is a basic factor in all body metabolic processes.

The Role of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL)

Enzymes that affect the adipose tissues include the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which functions with sensitive lipase (HSL). These enzymes help synthesize adipose triacylglycerol lipases into Vitro assays and the organ cultures present in the murine white adipose tissues. The ATGL plays a vital role in controlling and regulating lipid homeostasis in other body tissues. The functions have been grouped according to the transgenic that contains the tissues-specific ATGL component. By regulating lipolytic processes in the cardiomyocytes, the ATGL enzyme contributes to worsening cardiac infarctions (Takahara et al., 2019, p. A847). The encouraged obese condition and triglyceride growth have led to improvement of glycaemic control. These enzymes facilitate effective body functioning and control of all metabolic action.

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In the afferent arterioles of the human kidney, juxtaglomerular cells have the prorenin. The production of protein is the passive mode that stimulates the juxtaglomerular cells to convert the prorenin to renin. Renin is unrestricted in the blood system; it acts directly on the angiotensinogen synthesized in the liver and contained in the body plasma. The renin enzyme converts angiotensinogen to the angiotensin 1 form produced into an inactive state. Angiotensin 1 is converted to angiotensin 2 through catalysis by the angiotensin enzyme (ACE). The altered enzymes impact the kidney, the adrenal cortex in the body system, and arterioles that offer blood and brain transportation by combining the angiotensin two types 1 (AT) receptors. It also produces the angiotensin two type two receptors that cause the expansion by nitric oxide production.

The impact of angiotensin two on contraction occurs in the systemic arterioles, and they combine with G protein attached receptors that lead to the secondary messenger cascade that causes the change in results in the powerful arteriolar contraction. Angiotensin 2 immediately affects the human brain; for instance, it connects with the hypothalamus and activates thirst and the need for water. It also starts the production of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. Angiotensin 2 reduces the baroreceptor reflex’s sensitivity and action, decreasing the receptor response to high blood pressure.

The Linkage between Ghrelin, Adipose, and Cardiovascular Activities

Central obesity, or the presence of excess abdominal fat, presents a critical factor related to insulin opposition. Also, the required amount of visceral fat and the liver fat levels are significant features between dysmetabolic syndrome X and obesity in the abdominal region. Central obesity can give rise to diverse metabolic complications. In obese individuals, when the subcutaneous adipose tissue’s limited storage capacity is exceeded, the subsequent calorie surpluses promote fat accumulation in visceral tissues, resulting in local inflammations (Longo et al., 2019, p. 2). The ghrelin level in obese patients is less when compared to lean persons, and this is because it rises during food intake and becomes a challenge to achieve obese conditions.

Ghrelin’s movement in the body systems raises the abdominal tissues through a technique independent of the central orexigenic action—the chronic (IV) distillation of the acylated ghrelin with improved retroperitoneal volume in humans. The improved retroperitoneal WAT content obtained from the adipocyte enlargement results in decreased lipid removal. The microarray analysis suggests that the particular sensitivity to the ghrelin hormone mat results from the change in fine-tuning the signal handling measures. Therefore, there has to be an understanding of regulating and controlling fat deposition in the body.

Adipose or fat tissue located in close proximity to the heart is a vital organ that plays a crucial role in lipid metabolic processes and biological processes surrounding the homeostasis of energy and ensures glycerol and free fatty acids (FFAs) movement in the human heart. Based on research focusing on obese patients, the Ghrelin receptor, GHS-R, can promote and modulate inflammation in the adipose tissue (Mocanu et al., 2020, p. 298). Additionally, all the accumulated fats are processed and consumed through other body activities. Adipose tissues may be a result of the alteration of cell numbers of macrophages. The adipose tissue macrophages are pathogenic, and they affect insulin resistance. They affect the functioning of the insulin by making it inactive. The fatty tissues also act as the main source of energy for the myocardium functioning. Performing exercise and training makes the body organs more active and protects from metabolic-related disorders like obesity and diabetes.

The ELISA Action

The presence of techniques and procedures to measure cytokines and inflammatory markers with high sensitivity and specificity are considered significant. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the best measure of the proteins in different samples. Inflammatory processes in cardiac disease involve several mediators, such as C-reactive protein, cytokines, and chemokines (Ris et al., 2019, p. 374). It also has disadvantages linked to ELISA; for instance, the continuous range is thin compared to other technological experiments like multiple assays. ELISA test interferes with the specificity of given antibodies and makes use of them to provide analysis. It is conducted through several stages that include apprehending analyte from a given sample containing antibodies, the ability to make detection on obtained analytic data, amplification of the captured analyte—addition of the substrate content, and measurement of the signals through optic density.

The inflammation activities by the stimulation action in regards to the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin as well as the gamma interferon are acted upon by the anti-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-inflammatory properties are a substance that minimizes swelling and pain in the body. Anti-inflammatory agents stop chemicals or substances that are likely to cause infection. As chronic inflammatory conditions, cardiac disorders such as atherothrombosis are important to consider in exploring inflammatory diseases’ influence (Grover and Mackman, 2020, p. 80). They work closely with atherogenic proteins to increase the continuity of the disease. Some anti-inflammatory agents include; colchicine, which leads to the interruption of microtubules, causing diseases. It destroys the inflammasome activity and stops cytokine production from the cells. Hydroxychloroquine uses its anti-inflammatory properties by blocking the disease-causing micro-organism pathways. It also prevents the activation of disease-like receptors in the body by interrupting their processes.

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Reference List

Al Batran, R., Almutairi, M. and Ussher, J. (2018) ‘Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-mediated control of cardiac energy metabolism, Peptides, 100, pp. 94-100.

Grover, S.P. and Mackman, N. (2020) ‘Tissue factor in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis’, Atherosclerosis, 307, pp. 80-86.

Hong, H. et al. (2017) ‘Substance-P alleviates dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal damage by suppressing inflammation through enrichment of M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells, Cytokine, 90, pp. 21-30.

Longo, M. et al. (2019) ‘Adipose tissue dysfunction as a determinant of obesity-associated metabolic complications’, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(9), pp. 1-23.

Mocanu, V. et al. (2020) ‘Association of the ghrelin receptor and inflammation in peri-atrial adipose tissue from obese patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation, Acta Endocrinologica (Bucharest), 16(3), pp. 298-302.

Ris, T. et al. (2019) ‘Inflammatory biomarkers in infective endocarditis: machine learning to predict mortality, Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 196(3), pp. 374-382.

Straub, L. and Wolfrum, C. (2017), ‘LSD1 make fat colorful’, Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 28(1), pp. 1-2.

Takahara, S. et al. (2019) ‘Adipocyte-specific pharmacological inhibition of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) ameliorates cardiac fibrosis in heart failure. Circulation Research, 125(supplement 1), p. A847.

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Yuan, M.J., Li, W. and Zhong, P. (2021) ‘Research progress of ghrelin on cardiovascular disease’, Bioscience Reports, 41(1), pp. 1-6.

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