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Philosophies of Curriculum and Design


This paper presents a personal design of the essential learning strategies in the prevailing curriculum. It discusses how the curriculum can be modified to develop in various factors such as environment, social state, current education, and psychological state. All these are associated with the learning outcomes of education theories such as Vygotysky and Piaget. Eventually, there is synthesis of literature and its reflection to the curriculum.

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The essential learning styles must dictate the outcomes and become relevant to the prevailing working conditions. The establishment of such a system that overlooks outcomes and stresses on result based teaching practices is fundamental and ultimately paramount in the education system. This paper describes various points where the curriculum can be modified to basing on the various learning theories

Psychological Foundation


Behaviorism is also a crucial concept in the psychological area when discussing curriculum. This entails the stimulus responses to issues or conditions. It is about how one carries out oneself as shown in the image study style on the board (Todd, 2010). When followed separately, this concept entails conditioning and shaping the characters of the learners. This is done through giving rewards to the learners and reinforcements. In the Behaviorist Reinforcement Theory, Clark Hull says that drive and reward determine the conditioning of behavior (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013). The drive possessed by a person to get something, and the reward associated with attaining it allows the conditioning of the behavior.

This concept is a priority because it caters for those students with difficulty in learning. In behaviorism, the curriculum can be divided into smaller partitions for those students with problems (Jacobs, 2010). With the small units and desired behaviors reinforced to them, the curriculum can accommodate such students (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013). This idea is also important because all students are not quick learners. Therefore, there will be a need to reinforce the slow learners so that they keep on track. Rewards are also important since they may give the students the drive required. This concept has influenced curriculum in a way. For instance, there are set behaviors that are acceptable in the classrooms. These are to ensure order and safety of the students. Therefore, these imply that the behaviorism is also a vital concept in the curriculum.

Historical Influence


With the new evolutionary period in The National Period (1770s and 1880s), the mission for education changed. In this era, education had a new mission of life, equality and liberty as depicted in the image of different races attending similar classes. Dr. Benjamin Rush came up with the idea that a curriculum should emphasize democracy (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013). He also believed that exploration and development of natural resources were to be enacted through the curriculum. In his concept, some unnecessary subjects in the curriculum were to be eliminated while crucial areas were introduced. Science became a major area of study in the curriculum.

This idea of nationality is essential in the curriculum for making it relevant and accessible to all like the introduction of free elementary schools. This idea has influenced the curriculum by introducing new missions for education and the curriculum.


One of the concepts and ideas introduced in the colonial period (1642 – 1776) was the reading culture. The picture with learners holding books in the action board shows that much of reading is required in the curriculum. During this colonial period, the curriculum majorly focused on reading (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013). The educationists in America at the time had to concentrate on subjects that promoted reading and also those that supported reading.

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This concept is a priority when enacting the curriculum because most of the studies taken in the curriculum are done through reading (Samaras, 2011). For example, even when having scientific studies, a person accesses the libraries for research purposes. Therefore, a positive attitude towards reading and following this attitude is vital. Furthermore, reading has influenced the curriculum in a big way as it is a main subject.

Social Foundation


The image of the postmodern computer laboratory illustrates modernity. The concept of postmodern society is a priority when discussing the curriculum. In the present world, it is difficult to predict issue and outcomes of most incidents. New ideas and methods are being introduced and utilized currently. The postmodern theory states that the schools are involved in the introduction and distribution of new knowledge and technologies (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013)

This concept is integral in the curriculum since it ensures that relevance of the curriculum is maintained. For instance, there seems to be no universal/common language for students in this postmodern society. The theory believes that a language remains a political tool, but the contemporary theories of education and social sciences shall be rewritten. In this theory, it is said that gender, class, and race are brought by language but liberty joins them together (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013). Therefore, the concept in this theory is important when campaigning for liberty through the curriculum.


The effect of the peers to a learner is another important concept in the social foundation that should be considered in the curriculum. With many studies showing that the social conditions of the students affect their academics, it was important to check into it. In populations where the young people view education as less important, the peers will end up carrying a negative attitude towards education. This perception was experienced in the Latinos.

As children go through their adolescence, the peer groups are crucial since studies show that they affect their academics and social behavior (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013). This idea of monitoring the peers is important when looking into the curriculum since the peers affect the academics of learners to the extent of manipulating their attitudes towards education. This concept has influenced the curriculum by making sure some specific studies are done at particular ages to manage the peer pressure.

Education Philosophy


The philosophy of reconstructing is one integral concept to have when enacting the curriculum. This philosophy looks into changing and improving the society through the schools. Its main objective is to reconstruct the society and to improve it (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013). Reconstruction will be a priority since it is in these educational institutions that people gain knowledge and experience. This concept allows serious consideration in the field of curriculum since it is seen that the curriculum will be charged with improving and maintaining the societies’ conducts and values.


The philosophy of Perennialism aims at preserving the good values and knowledge learnt in the curriculum. It also advocates the passing of these values and knowledge to the next generations. As a school leader in the curriculum, the concept is the best in this philosophy because the students get to carry the values they gained to the next classes and even pass them to the next generation (Aveyard, 2010). This implies that the morals and knowledge gained would not be wasted which is a credible attribute. The concept in this philosophy has seen the curriculum change to make learning an innovative field. It also prepares students to be ready in handling situations without resisting. This philosophy preserves the world since some of the past ideas and educations are conserved (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013).

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Aveyard, H. (2010). Doing a literature review in health and social care a practical guide (2nd ed.). Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: McGraw-Hill/Open University Press.

Jacobs, H. (2010). Curriculum 21 essential education for a changing world. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Ornstein, A., & Hunkins, F. (2013). Curriculum: Foundations, Principles and Issues. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Samaras, A. (2011). Self-study teacher research improving your practice through collaborative inquiry. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Todd, R. (2010). Curriculum integration. Camberwell, Vic.: ACER Press.

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StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Philosophies of Curriculum and Design'. 16 December.

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