Curriculum Development in Language Teaching

Evaluation procedures

In education, there are several methods of evaluating a learner. These methods are known as procedures. These procedures assume different approaches and have different objectives. One of the common evaluation procedures used in the evaluation of an individual in a learning setting is the diagnostic procedure. This method of assessment determines the areas of learning in which an individual experiences problems. The diagnostic approach helps to identify the deficit in the system.

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The performance of an individual relates to the methods of learning used. This procedure is important because it specifically helps to identify the weaknesses of the learner and those of the educational system. An educationist can then identify the corrective measure appropriate in improving an individual’s capabilities. However, the evaluation procedure does not determine the recommendation to minimize the effect of the weaknesses or enhance the individual’s learning ability (Blood & Budd, 1972).

Placement evaluation is one of the commonly evaluation procedures. This procedure determines the most appropriate method for an individual to learn. In addition, the method determines the necessary steps in education. An expert assesses the individual involved in the learning process and determines the areas that require examination and improvement. The specialist then recommends an appropriate remedy.

Furthermore, the specialist may give an opinion on the quality and performance of the educational system of concern. The advantage of this procedure is that it specifies a remedy for any problem identified in the diagnosis. However, the major setback in this evaluation procedure is that two different experts undertake the problem identification and the formulation of a solution. To accomplish the objective of the whole procedure, the participation of experts from both the clinical and educational field is vital (Stufflebeam & Shinkfield, 2007).

Formative evaluation is an evaluation procedure used to assess the performance of an education system and the learner while the process of education is underway. The procedure does not interrupt the process of learning in any way. After the identification of the defective areas with respect to a student’s ability, corrections are initiated regarding the particular individual. In addition, the education system undergoes change in the areas that require improvement.

The advantage of this approach is that there is an opportunity to change the education system after assessment. A student undergoing the process of formative evaluation is also involved in the implementation of the recommended corrective measures. The assessment may be attained through a continuous test on which the learner improves continuously. On the other hand, the assessment of the education system and the learner occurs throughout the process of learning, and it may make the intervention effective in relation to time.

The learner implements another evaluation procedure through self-evaluation. The learner undertakes self-evaluation and pinpoints the areas that he or she has weaknesses. This kind of evaluation does not require expert intervention. Moreover, the learner does not use any formal or specialized method in the process. The evaluation of the assessment tests performances helps to determine the learner’s performance in moat of the areas of education. When the learner has succeeded in determining his or her position, he or she can seek professional advice on the appropriate areas. The major setback of this method is that the learner may not be equipped with the necessary knowledge to determine a problem. However, this procedure can be used at any time, and the reaction is swift.

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The evaluation procedure can be executed on the process of education after it is completed. The degree of effectiveness of the learning methodology is determined after the course completion. The primary aim of the evaluation is to assess the education system performance. This procedure is the summative evaluation of an education system. The particular methodology allows the analysis of the whole process before making a conclusion on the system effectiveness.

This method guarantees an accurate conclusion since all the stages in the system undergo evaluation. The changes made to the system cover all the possibilities throughout the course. However, this evaluation procedure does not allow for reforms affecting the students in the process of learning during the evaluation. The changes made to the system affect those individuals who enroll after the completion of the course by the students in the system at the time of the evaluation.

Teacher Support

For a teacher to perform according to the expected standards, several improvements are vital. Some of the improvements focus on the teacher alone, while others focus on the teacher and the teaching environment. Monetary rewards are some of the approaches used to motivate a teacher to do his or her work appropriately. It is logical that adequate remuneration is necessary for teachers to perform as expected. Poor remuneration affects the relationship between the teachers and the pupils.

The underlying cause of this crisis is the financial strain that teachers experience in their personal lives. A well-paid teacher has minimal distractions in the working environment and focuses more on the student’s affairs. It is possible that the poor financial status of the teachers brings the strained relationship between teachers and their students. The consequences of the financial difficulties are a poor attitude towards work. Generally, teachers are poorly paid.

Although some educationists contest the effectiveness of increased pay in order to improve the quality of education, it is a logical view of the majority of experts that the financial wellbeing of teachers affects their performance in class. Appreciating a teacher’s exceptional performance is also an important aspect in improving education standards. A teacher will feel encouraged to dedicate his or her effort towards work if there is some kind of recognition for his or her exceptional input into the education system. Monetary rewards could also be given to the teachers who put considerable efforts in improving their knowledge and skills in teaching.

The empowerment of teachers is another major factor that influences their performance. This is achieved through increased freedom of teachers in choosing their methods of teaching. The result of this kind of empowerment is that teachers can use a method of choice among the accepted conventional standard methods of teaching. Teachers’ overregulation makes them feel that their professional teaching skill is undermined. In addition, granting authority over the immediate learning environment could be a significant support factor affecting the teachers’ performance.

A teacher should have the authority to arrange and modify the learning environment for comfortable teaching. For example, a teacher should have control over the students’ conduct during the learning process to foster attention and discipline among students. This makes the teaching environment comfortable for the teacher and captures students’ attention. The authorities can also support teachers by offering additional professional training. A teacher should be equipped with the most current skills to enable him or her to conduct her teaching sessions properly.

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The available field of knowledge is dynamic and changes with time. Keeping a teacher informed and updated on the emerging issues enables him or her to offer the best teaching services. In addition, this measure ensures that the teacher does not teach using obsolete methods. The additional training also equips the teacher with additional knowledge in the field of specialization (Bell, 1995).

Reducing teachers’ workload could also contribute substantially to their performance. When a teacher is overloaded, there is a high likelihood that he or she will lose interest in the matter at hand. Consequently, the teacher has lesser teaching morale. This contributes to a poor relationship between the teacher and the students, and affects the students’ performance. Moreover, an overloaded teacher is less likely to follow the correct methodology of teaching a particular subject. A reasonable workload will keep the teacher enthusiastic throughout the teaching sessions. This will cultivate a health teacher-student relationship and thus improve the students’ performance.

Purpose of Evaluation

Generally, the evaluation processes have several purposes. One of the purposes of this process is to inform students and teachers on the areas of the learning process that need revision. This process of identification is the diagnosis provided by all the procedures of evaluation. Through the identification process, students and teachers are able to react to a problem and overcome it. This process of diagnosis also specifies the narrow area that has a problem. In this regard, the teacher and the learner can concentrate on the specific issue rather than deal with the problem using a general approach. The learner is able to know his or her cognitive or non-cognitive inadequacies.

The areas with consistence problems as well as those with random problems are also determined. In other words, the learner is able to identify disparities arising due to natural conditions and those that arise due to random mistakes. The learner is also able to adapt easily to adverse situations. In addition, the learner and the teacher can identify the most productive areas. With this knowledge, the teacher and the learner can capitalize on the areas that respond positively. When a learner has identified areas of weaknesses, he or she can select a future occupation that suits his or her capabilities. In this way, the learner is able to realize his or her full potential.

Thus, the learners’ abilities are utilized to the maximum possible level. Evaluation is important to the educational authorities since it assesses the education system’s performance. This facilitates changes in those areas that portray weaknesses. Moreover, in this regard, teachers can develop a teaching plan. Generally, the information gathered through the evaluation process enables learners to develop careers, and the authorities to streamline the education system. In addition, evaluation establishes the performance of a school system (Blood & Budd, 1972).

Curriculum Ideologies

One curriculum ideology is that the design of the education structure focuses on developing a system that imparts an individual with education. This ideology ignores all the other objectives of the curriculum designers such as the career and environment of the individual. The other factors are a secondary result of knowledge acquisition. A curriculum based on this ideology aims at helping an individual to acquire a maximum level of knowledge in the field of concern. However, the model assumes that the curriculum does not modify factors such as the economic development of an individual and the environment.

The most common curriculum ideology is the one formulated based on the state standards. When formulating a curriculum according to the state standards, it is not possible to modify the curriculum to the desired form outside the definition of the state regulations. When the people of a country adopt such a curriculum ideology, the education system becomes streamlined. There is uniformity in the education of the population, and this supports the implementation of national agendas. However, this kind of a curriculum ideology is not flexible enough to meet all individual needs.

A curriculum may be developed based on the talent of a learner. This curriculum aims at developing the skills of an individual in a certain field. Furthermore, the curriculum is concentrated on a particular discipline. Moreover, this kind of a curriculum is based on the learner’s interest in the discipline. The advantage of this kind of a curriculum is that the learner is always cooperative due to his or her interest in the particular discipline. On the other hand, the curriculum tends to lack the level of diversity present in most of the other curriculum ideologies.

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Another curriculum theory advocates for the formulation of curriculums without any definite objective. The suggestion is that a general curriculum is not supposed to have any primary objective. This curriculum theory just posts a mechanism in place such that individuals obtain assistance in the achievement of their objectives. The learner’s wishes are a paramount determinant of the curriculum structuring. The methodology of formulating a curriculum is not biased towards any one objective such as economic or social development. In addition, in this theory, all curriculums are appropriate as long as their effect converges on the desired outcome.

The third curriculum ideology states that the design of a curriculum considers the development of an individual. In other cases, the intention of the curriculum is to aid the general development of the economy. The knowledge and training acquired in the curriculum does not matter as long as it fosters economic development. In addition, the frame of the curriculum contains some economic, social, or political aspects to be developed. According to this theory, a curriculum should conform to a certain desired condition. The knowledge and training offered is biased towards the objectives. The balance of knowledge and the wishes of the learner are secondary in this ideology.

Factors affecting successor a curriculum design

The economic situation of the institution or the country for which the curriculum is designed has a significant effect on the success of the curriculum. The available resources must be able to support the curriculum development in the institution. A mismatch of the design and the available resources results in the failure of the curriculum. Political support is also necessary in the functionality of a curriculum. A curriculum design applies successfully if the political planning supports the development based on the knowledge and training offered by the existing curriculum.

Another determining factor of the success of a curriculum is technology. The existing technology must be able to support the curriculum requirements. The technology used particularly to implement the curriculum should be available and realistic in the physical and economic terms. All the technological aspects of the curriculum should be available for all the education institutions (Kelly, 1989).

The tailoring of an appropriate curriculum should include all the aspects of the society. A society with diverse cultures, political systems, and economic structure should have a curriculum that accommodates all these aspects. This is to ensure the uniform realization of education development throughout the society. If a curriculum is inclusive of all the important aspects of the society, it is likely to be more successful.

An appropriate curriculum must run parallel to the curriculum ideologies of the learner and the designer. The curriculum has a specific desired outcome according to different learning theories. In this essence, the curriculum should satisfy the main ideology of the learner and its designer. The total progress of a curriculum in achieving the aims of the relevant ideology determines the success of the curriculum (Kelly, 1989).

Steps in Curriculum Development for English Language Course

The first step is to identify the current positions of the high school leavers through summative evaluation. Their existing knowledge of English language is the first consideration. This determines the point at which the curriculum takes over the development of the students’ language skills. Moreover, this step helps the education system to avoid creating a bloated course in which irrelevant topics are included.

The step involves studying the contents of the high school curriculum so that the panel bestowed with the responsibility of curriculum development is acquainted with the knowledge that the high school leavers possess. The panel also seeks to establish the level of effectiveness of the high school curriculums. In this regard, it is possible to identify the disparities within the high school course. At this stage, the expected knowledge of English by the students after the completion of the course is determined (Allen & Unwin, 1993).

A proposal for the scope of the course is outlined in the second step. The aims of the English course are established and documented in the proposal. The resources needed for the implementation of the curriculum are determined in this step. Subsequently, the panel determines the specific aspects of teaching that could help the students to have a better understanding of English. The teaching methods should be within the capabilities of the teacher.

Afterwards, the whole course is placed within a specific and viable period. In this essence, the tailoring of the curriculum would ensure that it fits in a period of one year. Moreover, the weaker sections of the high school curriculum undergo revision and improvement to ensure a high quality education. The curriculum aims at equipping the learner with the necessary skills to facilitate an advanced English course. Thus, the advanced course builds on the existing knowledge imparted by the one-year preparation (Allen & Unwin, 1993).

In the third step, the writing of the final draft of the shape paper occurs. Relevant personalities evaluate the shape paper and sanction the final draft. It is in this stage that the panel amends the paper to remove contradictory clauses and include the requirements of the existing education policy. The panel presents the shape paper to the authorities for sanctioning and integration into the education institutions (Allen & Unwin, 1993).

References

Allen & Unwin, M. (1993). Curriculum development and design (2nd ed.). St. Leonards, NSW, Australia. Print.

Bell, B. (1995). Teacher Development. Hoboken: Routledge Falmer.

Blood, D. F., & Budd, W. C. (1972). Educational measurement and evaluation. New York: Harper and Row.

Kelly, A. V. (1989). The curriculum: theory and practice (3rd ed.). London: Paul Chapman.

Stufflebeam, D. L., & Shinkfield, A. J. (2007). Evaluation theory, models, and applications. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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