Obesity is a chronic, recurring disease, and the prevalence rate of obesity in both economically developed countries and developing countries is comparable to the epidemic. The development of obesity is based on the fact of a prolonged, positive energy balance, which occurs when food is consumed in quantities exceeding energy consumption, or when energy consumption is reduced. Obesity refers to polyetiological diseases, and exogenous factors that serve as provocative moments are most often called malnutrition and decreased motor activity. It is critical to note the fact that exercise cannot be considered as an effective tool for weight loss, but it does help individuals to maintain their normal and healthy weight.
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Obesity is part of the polycystic ovary syndrome, and obese pregnant women have more pregnancy complications before and during childbirth. Until 1980, the frequency of obesity in industrialized countries did not exceed 10%. According to the research, more than 1.6 billion of the world’s population were overweight, including more than 400 million are obese (Drenowatz 98). According to the forecast, by 2016, over 2.3 billion people will be overweight, and more than 700 million will be obese (Land 62). According to the results of epidemiological studies, the undisputed world leaders in the prevalence of obesity are the countries of Western Europe and the United States (Drenowatz 99). Thus, obesity poses a threat on a global scale, which makes the issue urgent and top-priority.
The widespread prevalence of obesity among young people worsens the current demographic situation. For instance, 66% of obese women have infertility associated with impaired production of sex hormones and a high risk of developing cervical, ovarian, and breast cancer (Chatree et al. 789). Based on the research, some authors believe that for all types of obesity, the nutritional factor, especially the fat content in the diet, plays the main role in its development, while others, despite the numerous reliable endocrine and metabolic factors contributing to the development of obesity, are only of secondary importance. Most scientists conclude that obesity is a multifactorial process, in the development of which genetic, metabolic, individual psychodynamic, socio-economic, and cultural factors play a role (Karasu 87). However, it is critical to note that the pathogenesis of obesity remains not completely clear.
The main factors causing this pathology can be combined into several groups. Firstly, it is a genetically determined phenomenon that does not allow the body to spend excess calories in the form of heat. Secondly, it is overeating in childhood, which forms a functional morphological basis for the expression of a genetic phenomenon and the development of obesity as a pathophysiological process. Thirdly, this is the formation of perverse endocrine reactions due to an increase in the main metabolism expressed in the appearance of abnormal eating habits (Karasu 90). Fourth, this is a decrease in physical activity, contributing to the preservation of excess body weight and aggravating the course of obesity.
Considering the role of the nutritional-hyperdynamic factor, it is necessary to take into account not only the absolute amount of energy consumed and digested but also the qualitative composition, as well as the eating regimen in determining the risk of obesity. It is shown that obesity contributes to a lack of protein in the diet, weakening the specific dynamic effect of food. As a rule, obesity, with an equal caloric excess, develops faster if the intervals between meals are large and the portions are plentiful. Evidently, with this diet, a high concentration of insulin is held longer. Late eating contributes to obesity, which is a shift in the maximum of food activity in the late evening hours (Land 64). A tendency towards disturbance of circadian rhythms, characteristic of disorders of the hypothalamic function, is manifested here.
Some people go to the gym, in the hope that this will solve all their problems with being overweight. They manage to lose 2-3 kg, after which the weight begins to increase due to a set of muscle mass (Land 68). Having not received a visible result, a person is disappointed and leaves the gym forever. Thus, the main role of physical activity is more in maintaining weight than in reducing, although regular physical activity helps to reduce weight more effectively, maintain the rate of weight loss, and avoid prolonged plateau phases. With weight loss without exercise, a person loses not only fat, but also muscle mass, and physical activity allows her to be saved. Thus, the exercise-only acts as an assisting measure for the overall weight loss, but it cannot be used as a primary approach.
Nevertheless, it is critical to understand that there are various types of exercises, which possess different biochemical pathways. In the muscles, chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy, and the fuel for muscle is adenosine triphosphoric acid or ATP. The muscle can perform work in aerobic and anaerobic modes. In an aerobic regimen, ATP recovery in muscles occurs with the participation of oxygen. The aerobic pathway of ATP resynthesis is associated with the oxidation of glucose and fats, and in this case, CO2, water, and other decay products are formed. The oxidation reaction in muscles is a stable final process and determines the body’s ability to perform moderate-intensity physical work for a long time (Estévez-Herrera et al. 4101). In this case, the body is in a stable state – there is no accumulation of lactic acid, and oxygen debt is not formed.
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In conclusion, exercise is important to maintain weight for a long time. Many studies show that those who exercise regularly maintain reduced weight at this level much more successfully than those who continue to lead a sedentary lifestyle or stop exercising after reaching a certain weight level. Physical activity can prevent a repeated increase in body weight not only due to an increase in energy expenditure but also due to an improvement in mood, the emergence of self-esteem, which in turn contributes to the observance of the diet. However, the biochemical changes induced by exercise does not facilitate weight loss.
Chatree, Saimai, et al. “Adipose Y5R MRNA Is Higher in Obese than Non-Obese Humans and Is Correlated with Obesity Parameters.” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 243, no. 9, 2018, pp. 786-795.
Drenowatz, Clemens. “The Obesities: Various Paradigms Addressing a Single Problem.” American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, 2016, pp. 97-99.
Estévez-Herrera, Judith, et al. “ATP: The Crucial Component of Secretory Vesicles.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 113, no. 28, 2016, pp. 4098-4106.
Karasu, Sylvia R. “The Obesities: An Overview of Convergent and Divergent Paradigms.” American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, 2016, pp. 84-96.
Land, Nicole. “Gooey Stuff, Intra-Activity, and Differential Obesities: Foregrounding Agential Adiposity within Childhood Obesity Stories.” Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, vol. 16, no. 1, 2015, pp. 55-69.
- “According to the forecast, by 2016, over 2.3 billion people will be overweight, and more than 700 million will be obese” The given values are not mentioned in the article, but it is based on the references stating that there an increase of obese and overweight people and information based in the article, which use WHO data. You can explain that the article uses Evans article as a reference for an increase of epidemic and it shows its own estimates in 2010. Thus, by combining WHO data, Evans estimates and the statements made in other references, which come from the given article, I put the numbers based on the understanding of the articles, but I put it as by 2016, because I also used 2010 article in the context of Land.
- “For instance, 66% of obese women have infertility associated with impaired production of sex hormones and a high risk of developing cervical, ovarian, and breast cancer” This data is also based WHO data which is used in the references of the article, but the overall statement is made on my own understanding of Y5R MRNA and mRNAs overall, which are involved in hormonal regulation and cancer. I cited the article because it bases its context on a wide range of source among which is WHO data, but because I added my own understanding through the context of the article, I referenced Chatree.
- “Late eating contributes to obesity, which is a shift in the maximum of food activity in the late evening hours” The article mentions on numerous occasions that Euro-West conceptualization and its understanding is part of the problem. In addition, it uses Kern’s book on healthy choices, thus, the statement is derived from the Land’s article.
- “They manage to lose 2-3 kg, after which the weight begins to increase due to a set of muscle mass” 2-3 kg is arbitrary number that I used as an example for the fact that weight loss is not a proper metric, because muscle also increases weight due to exercise. The in-text was put because the author uses Barad and other references to claim body intra-acts with the goal of people.
Please note that none the in-texts are quotations, therefore it is based on the article with its sources and my own understanding. In addition, I used this article because it uses a lot of references, which makes it richer to give these claims.