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“Same-Sex Marriage in Canada” by Jay Makarenko

Purpose of the research

In the research paper, Same-Sex Marriage in Canada, Makarenko (2007) focused on the analysis of historical and legal processes that culminated in the legalization of same-sex marriages in the country. The author’s objectives were to illustrate and evaluate some important court cases that revolutionized the definitions of marriage in the country.

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Research Methodology

The research paper used a meta-analysis of related studies to generate a qualitative methodology. According to Bryman (2012), the literature review can be used as a research methodology when a systematic review of related theories and studies is believed to address the research objectives. The author started the study by analyzing the historical transformations in the country’s legal systems. Additionally, some of the important court cases were reviewed to generate a legal perspective of same-sex marriages in the 1970s. In fact, the methodology focused on the changes to social behaviors that compelled Canada’s legal system to redefine marriage laws.

Most of the literature review methods are descriptive because they provide facts that are used to describe social changes (Murray, Linden, & Kendall, 2014). Additionally, the methodology extends the scope of research while reducing the chances of bias. In this paper, the topic addressed social and cultural issues. In fact, the purpose of the research focused on reviewing the historical and legal changes that led to the acceptance of gays and lesbians in the marriage act.

The objectives differed significantly with those presented by MacIntosh, Reising, and Andruff (2010) in similar research on same-sex marriage in Canada. Whereas Makarenko (2007) focused on reviewing the historical and legal transformations, MacIntosh et al. (2010), focused on assessing relationship satisfaction and attachment among same-sex couples. Some of the advantages of using a literature review are the low risk of bias, the ability to evaluate longitudinal data, and the availability of resources.

Data collection

Makarenko (2007) compiled and analyzed some of the most relevant court cases that addressed same-sex marriage. The ethnography technique was used to identify resources addressing social, cultural, and group diversities. The method focuses on the social and cultural dimensions affecting human interactions (Heritage, 2013). A critical case sampling model was used to identify particular materials related to the research topic. For example, he identified Everett Klippert’s case essential in triggering public debate that culminated in the first amendments to Canada’s criminal law.

Additionally, the author focused on the sequential legislative reforms that followed the decriminalization of homosexuality. Historical and legal materials were identified for review. Government publications, court rulings, and publications from civil rights organizations are some of the documents included in the review. The resources were selected based on the relationship between the contents and the research topic. The author omitted non-legal and informal publications from the list and concentrated on the official debates in the House of Commons, judicial rulings, and political movements that transformed the marriage laws.

Appropriateness of data collection technique

The data collection process used was appropriate because it helped the researcher to narrow down the resources to the most detailed, essential, and appropriate. The social topic addressed the changes to human relationships and the increasing popularity of same-sex marriages. Ethnomethodology was crucial to assess the legal disputes that were being experienced in the country. Additionally, the critical sampling technique narrowed down the literature to official publications, legislation, and judicial rulings.

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Ethical issues

The ethical issues were insignificant because the author focused on secondary sources. According to Liyanagunawardena, Adams, and Williams (2013), ethical issues are common in primary sources. Additionally, they emerge when dealing with human participants. However, the research focused on legal and historical literature. The author provided active website links to some of the official publications, legal amendments, and marriage laws.

The links were meant to enhance the readers’ ability to access the original materials. Additionally, the links showed that the author recognized the efforts and ownership of original publishers. Although the individuals mentioned in the court cases were not contacted when publishing the paper, the author used the facts as presented in the official justice publications. Additionally, most of the articles used are available to the public and do not require any form of authorization to use or replicate in research.

Findings and Conclusions

The research found that a series of legal conflicts led to a rise in civil movements that campaigned against the criminalization of homosexuality. In fact, Klippert’s case was significant in shaping the position of homosexuality in Canada’s legal system. Whereas the law considered homosexuality illegal and a criminal offense, the justice minister, Trudeau decriminalized the behavior terming it a social condition that did not concern the criminal code.

The decriminalization amendment increased the confidence of homosexuals who used civil rights organizations, political parties, and court cases to reverse the definitions of marriage in the country. Additionally, the issue of homosexuality was interpreted within the frameworks of rights and freedom. The House of Commons was engaged in a series of debates that culminated in the ratification of the Civil Marriage Act in 2005.

Scholarly research in academic journals

Scholarly research is published in academic journals to create opportunities for review, critique, and sharing knowledge among scholars. Most of these studies present primary sources that are essential for expanding knowledge in a particular academic discipline. The academic journals prevent misguiding, and unverifiable articles from being distributed to innocent readers. They verify the authenticity and credibility of articles before publishing.


Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Heritage, J. (2013). Garfinkel and ethnomethodology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

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Liyanagunawardena, T. R., Adams, A. A., & Williams, S. A. (2013). MOOCs: A systematic study of the published literature 2008-2012. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(3), 202-227.

MacIntosh, H., Reissing, E. D., & Andruff, H. (2010). Same-sex marriage in Canada: The impact of legal marriage on the first cohort of gay and lesbian Canadians to wed. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 19(3), 79-90.

Makarenko, J. (2007). Same-Sex Marriage in Canada

Murray, J. L., Linden, R., & Kendall, D. (2014). Sociology in Our times. Toronto, Canada: Nelson.

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