In an immunization schedule, provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, eighteen diseases are marked as possible to prevent with the help of appropriate vaccinations. Vaccinations for children (birth – six years) and teenagers/young adults (seven years – eighteen years) are scheduled differently, according to their age.
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Birth – Six Years Immunization
In this teaching session, parents and clients will be educated about the needed vaccinations, diseases that can develop during this age without vaccination, their impact on children, and the possible complications.
After this session, parents (and their children) will be aware of the current vaccinations, their safety, and the ability to prevent diseases. Parents are expected to agree to vaccinate their children.
The content will include descriptions of diseases and vaccination schedule:
- Birth – Hepatitis B vaccine
- First and second months – HepB vaccine (CDC, 2016)
- Second month – Rotavirus (RV), Diphtheria (DTaP), Haemophilus influenza (type b) (Hib), Pneumococcal (PCV), Polio (IPV)
- Four months – same vaccines, expect HepB
- Six months – same vaccines plus Influenza (yearly) (CDC, 2016)
- Twelve/fifteen/eighteen months – same plus Mumps (MMR), Chickenpox (Varicella), Hepatitis A (HepA) (two doses of HepA are recommended for better protection)
- Nineteen-twenty three months / two-three years – Influenza (yearly)
- Four-six years – DTaP, IPV, Influenza, MMR, Varicella (CDC, 2016)
It is essential to address the existing prejudices against vaccinations, such as beliefs that they can cause chronic diseases or are only implemented because of the financial profit of medical facilities. Moreover, if religious beliefs of parents influence their decision, they need to be approached with respect and caution.
Additional information about the ways that diseases spread by (air, direct contact, contact with blood, etc.) can be included if parents believe that their children are unlikely to be exposed to the disease. In this case, additional statistics about disease spread can be provided.
Presentations, slide shows, lectures, video lectures, podcasts (audio and visual) can be used during the lessons. Articles from journals and researches that prove the safety of vaccinations need to be presented to parents who are reluctant to vaccinate their child. For children, game playing and role-playing can be engaged to explain the diseases and vaccinations.
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Evaluation of the efficiency can be completed by observing parents’ and children’s willingness to be vaccinated. Nursing professionals can also assess patients’ knowledge of disease contamination symptoms and possible complications.
Seven – Eighteen Years Immunization
During these lessons, parents, teenagers, and young adults will be provided with information about diseases and vaccinations that need to be done during this period. Using fact sheets and other materials, learners will be educated about the symptoms and possible complications of the diseases.
To educate parents and their teenage/young adult children about diseases, their symptoms, and complications. To raise awareness of the possible consequences of non-vaccination both for parents and their children. Parents and their children are expected to agree to be vaccinated.
Information about vaccination schedules, diseases, their causes, and complications will be provided to patients.
- Seven-eight years – Influenza (yearly), TDaP, HepB, IPV, MMR, Varicella, Hepatitis A (if missed), Meningococcal (MenACWY), Pneumococcal, Hepatitis A (if at increased risk)
- Nine-ten years – same vaccines plus Human papillomavirus (HPV) (if at increased risk/willing to get the vaccine after consultation with the provider), MenACWY, MenB, Pneumococcal, Hepatitis A (if at increased risk) (CDC, 2017)
- Eleven-twelve years – Influenza (yearly), TDaP, HPV, MenACWY (recommended), MenB, Pneumococcal, Hepatitis A (if at increased risk), HepB, IPV, MMR, Varicella (if missed)
- Thirteen-fifteen years – Influenza (yearly), TDaP, HPV, MenACWY (if missed), MenB, Pneumococcal, Hepatitis A (if at risk), HepB, IPV, MMR, Varicella (if missed) (CDC, 2017)
- Sixteen-eighteen years – Influenza (yearly), TDaP, HPV, MenACWY (if missed), MenACWY (boost shot for 16 y.o.), MenB (may be vaccinated if at risk/willing to), Pneumococcal, Hepatitis A (if at risk), HepB, IPV, MMR, Varicella (if missed)
The same prejudices and beliefs need to be addressed if parents or children are unwilling to be vaccinated. Moreover, the awareness of the HPV can be relatively low in teenagers and their parents. Additional information about the HPV, cervical, and gynecological cancer needs to be provided to ensure that participants are aware of possible conditions and consequences of non-vaccination.
Different materials, such as handouts, presentations, websites, fact sheets, figures, tables, and video/audio podcasts can be used in order to educate learners about diseases. Krawczyk et al. (2012) point out that both written and video interventions are equally efficient in educating participants about HPV.
Teenagers and young adults can also receive articles from magazines and journals that will provide proof of vaccines’ safety. If they are willing to discuss vaccines and diseases, other medical professionals can be engaged to explain how vaccines work, why they are safe and necessary.
A fact sheet about all diseases mentioned in the content will be provided to participants.
Participants’ knowledge about vaccines and diseases will be assessed by a nursing professional. If provided information is persuading, participants will agree to be vaccinated or vaccinate their children.
CDC. (2016). Recommended immunizations for children from birth through 6 years old. Web.
CDC. (2017). Recommended immunizations for children 7-18 years old. Web.
Krawczyk, A., Lau, E., Perez, S., Delisle, V., Amsel, R., & Rosberger, Z. (2012). How to inform: Comparing written and video education interventions to increase human papillomavirus knowledge and vaccination intentions in young adults. Journal of American College Health, 60(4), 316-322.