Vaccines and Autism: Does the Controversy Persist? | Free Essay Example

Vaccines and Autism: Does the Controversy Persist?

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Topic: Health & Medicine
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Time of the Vaccination Introduction

  • 1796 was the year of vaccination (Horne, Powell, Hummel, & Holyoak, 2015).
  • A scientific approach was applied later.
  • Vaccines from various diseases appeared gradually.
  • Most of them were discovered in the 20th century.
  • The connection between autism was invented recently.

Vaccination first appeared in 1796; afterward, many accompanying discoveries were made. Scientists managed to find quite a few vaccines against various diseases. The connection between vaccines and autism was proposed recently.

Indication for the Vaccination

  • Vaccinations are mandatory for all today.
  • Children are vaccinated since their birth.
  • Sex and nationality do not play any role.
  • Certain vaccinations are done at different ages.
  • The refusal of vaccinations is undesirable.

Today, all categories of the population are subject to vaccination. Certain vaccines need to be done at a particular age. The refusal of vaccinations is permissible, but it is not encouraged.

Pharmacokinetics for the Vaccination

  • The virus enters the body’s blood.
  • The body actively struggles with a weakened virus.
  • The immune system destroys the infection.
  • The body gets rid of the virus.
  • The period of struggle can vary.

In special cases, there are contraindications. Blood cells and the entire immune system actively fight with an injected virus. The effect of infection gradually passes, and the body becomes completely healthy. Sometimes there are contraindications to injections, for example, individual intolerance.

Pharmacodynamics for the Vaccination

  • A weakened virus is injected into the body.
  • The immune system is struggling with the virus.
  • The immunity is gradually developed.
  • The subsequent infection becomes entirely impossible.
  • A person gets full of lifelong protection.

The pharmacokinetics of vaccination is that a weakened virus is injected into the body. In the process of struggling with the body with an injected infection, immunity is developed. The person becomes completely protected from the disease.

Dosage of the Vaccination

  • Vaccines are usually injected in small doses.
  • Viruses are usually weakened intentionally.
  • Too high a dose can be detrimental.
  • The calculation depends on the disease.
  • Experts determine the order of calculation.

When calculating an optimal dosage, it is essential not to be mistaken with the volume of the medication. The virus that is contained in the vaccine is usually weak. The volume is calculated according to the specific nature of the disease.

Monitoring Required with the Vaccination

  • After vaccination, medical supervision is desirable.
  • Changing the state of health is natural.
  • Children should be monitored by pediatricians.
  • Inspection should take place at all stages.
  • Received data are fixed and compared.

After the injection of a specific vaccine into the body, it is significant to monitor patients’ conditions. Any changes in the state of health are logical and understandable. All the data should be analyzed and processed.

Side Effects

  • A fever, a general malaise.
  • Headaches, nausea, and periodical weakness.
  • Dizziness, rather frequent temperature changes.
  • The inflammation of the mucous membranes.
  • Side effects do not last long.

The most common side effects are dizziness, general malaise, as well as the inflammation of the mucous membranes. All symptoms tend to pass quickly. The body returns to its normal state in a few days.

Cost of the Vaccination

  • Vaccination is free in most countries (Fischbach, Harris, Ballan, Fischbach, & Link, 2016).
  • The cost of some injections varies.
  • Rare vaccines are the most expensive.
  • The possibility of free vaccination is beneficial.
  • A high cost is because of complexity.

As a rule, most vaccines are free. If a person wants a rare injection, he does it for money. Some vaccines are quite expensive because of the complexity of the work involved in extracting the components of the virus.

Clinical Practice Guideline

  • Vaccine development starts with a consensus.
  • Intermediate results are tested (Van der Linden, Clarke, & Maibach, 2015).
  • Possible additions are made to the medication.
  • The commission approves the vaccine.
  • The effect on humans is checked.

A specific vaccine is developed on the basis of consensus. All results are regularly tested and documented. Vaccines are tested in humans only after full safety assurance.

Surrounding Controversy

  • Controversy concerning the impact on the psyche.
  • Faith in the occurrence of children’s autism.
  • The confrontation of childhood vaccination (Scott, 2016).
  • Attempts to ban medical experiments.
  • Research in the field of children’s autism.

There is a controversy regarding the relationship between vaccination and children’s autism. This theory’s supporters insist on stopping injections. All kinds of research are periodically conducted.

Effectiveness and Access to Treatment

  • The effectiveness is scientifically proven.
  • Moral and ethical issues are not affected.
  • Economic consequences are not serious.
  • Access to treatment is available to all (Nyhan, Reifler, Richey, & Freed, 2014).
  • No political implications of the issue.

Vaccination is a scientifically proven procedure. In the process of treatment, no political, moral, or other issues are affected by the parties concerned. Vaccination is available to everyone without exception.

Controversy Impact

  • Children of preschool of school-age (Dixon & Clarke, 2013).
  • Parents susceptible to public opinion.
  • Children with obvious health problems.
  • Adults who were not vaccinated.
  • Doctors on whom opponents of vaccines complain.

The greatest impact is on children and adults who were not vaccinated. Doctors are criticized because of this controversy. Health problems do not disappear.

Literature Evidence

  • No connection between vaccines and autism (Taylor, Swerdfeger, & Eslick, 2014).
  • The vaccine-autism controversy is strong (Offit, 2015).
  • Questionnaires prove people’s beliefs (Rosenberg, Law, Anderson, Samango-Sprouse, & Law, 2013).
  • The prevailing stereotype is popular.
  • Some parents see the situation ambiguously.

Based on the literature review, the relationship between vaccination and autism was not found. However, some parents are skeptical. The stereotype still exists as evidenced by the questionnaires.

Alternatives to the Vaccination

  • Constant monitoring by specialists.
  • Protecting the child from possible infections.
  • Rather limited communication with peers.
  • Regular intake of vitamins and nutrients.
  • Constant health promotion at home.

If parents are against vaccination, it is necessary to regularly check the child’s health. As auxiliary products, vitamins and different nutrients will be useful. Communication with peers will have to be limited because of the risk of infection.

Two Specific Alternatives

  • The level of maternal education is necessary (Rosenberg et al., 2013).
  • The desire to help can be meaningless.
  • The influence of maternal care is very high.
  • Genetically, tests can be useful (Fischbach et al., 2016).
  • Conclusions about the predisposition can be obtained.

As alternatives to vaccination, genetic tests can be performed. They will help to identify children’s predisposition to certain diseases and take appropriate measures. It is also essential to raise the level of maternal education, as her impact is strong enough.

Personal Opinion Concerning the Use of Vaccination in Practice

  • The controversy is a scientifically proven myth.
  • The use of vaccination in practice is welcomed.
  • Caveats will concern only side effects.
  • Alternatives can be considered but not blindly used.
  • The benefits of vaccination should be distributed.

The use of vaccination technology in personal practice is desirable. Any caveats will concern only possible side effects. Some alternatives can be implemented only in aggregate but not as a complete substitute for injections.

References

Dixon, G. N., & Clarke, C. E. (2013). Heightening uncertainty around certain science: Media coverage, false balance, and the autism-vaccine controversy. Science Communication, 35(3), 358-382.

Fischbach, R. L., Harris, M. J., Ballan, M. S., Fischbach, G. D., & Link, B. G. (2016). Is there concordance in attitudes and beliefs between parents and scientists about autism spectrum disorder? Autism, 20(3), 353-363.

Horne, Z., Powell, D., Hummel, J. E., & Holyoak, K. J. (2015). Countering antivaccination attitudes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(33), 10321-10324.

Nyhan, B., Reifler, J., Richey, S., & Freed, G. L. (2014). Effective messages in vaccine promotion: A randomized trial. Pediatrics, 133(4), e835-e842.

Offit, P. A. (2015). Vaccines and autism in primate model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(40), 12236-12237.

Rosenberg, R. E., Law, J. K., Anderson, C., Samango-Sprouse, C., & Law, P. A. (2013). Survey of vaccine beliefs and practices among families affected by autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Pediatrics, 52(9), 871-874.

Scott, J. B. (2016). Boundary work and the construction of scientific authority in the vaccines-autism controversy. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 46(1), 59-82.

Taylor, L. E., Swerdfeger, A. L., & Eslick, G. D. (2014). Vaccines are not associated with autism: An evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Vaccine, 32(29), 3623-3629.

Van der Linden, S. L., Clarke, C. E., & Maibach, E. W. (2015). Highlighting consensus among medical scientists increases public support for vaccines: Evidence from a randomized experiment. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1207-1211.