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The Facets of Globalization in Internet Security

Introduction

Globalization is a process beneficial in numerous ways as it supports economic growth and assists in accessing and creating opportunities – the Internet is possibly both one of its most visible facets and a driving force. Web security is one of the issues on which the effects of globalization are not overtly apparent – in highly digitalized states, Internet malware and warfare can potentially jeopardize the security of individuals and whole societies. This paper aims to outline and define interconnections between Internet security and the process of worldwide integration.

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Topic

Despite a considerable body of literature available separately on globalization and Internet security, research dedicated to their mutual impact seems somewhat limited in number. The majority of the available literature focuses on the issue of national cybersecurity, which does not correspond to the research questions fully. The research questions consider what effect globalization has on Internet security and whether it aggravates the problem of online privacy.

Rationale

Given the extent of influence that globalization has on a number of aspects of societal life, exploring its consequences regarding Internet security can determine gaps in knowledge and consequently help fill them. Currently, the variety of threats to IT systems is continuously increasing. The areas of Internet security and privacy encounter various challenges, given the growing frequency of attacks, among which are data breaches, phishing campaigns, ransom malware, and fake technical support. Therefore, examining how globalization contributes to Internet security could indicate methods to alleviate these issues.

Interdisciplinarity

In order to extensively answer the research questions outlined, the involvement of several disciplines seems vital. Firstly, incorporating, maintaining, and improving information security is a task that such a branch of Computer Science and Mathematics as Computer Security undertakes. Secondly, the study of economic and social aspects of the worldwide exchange of products and technologies also involves understanding themes in the sphere of social sciences. Creating a comprehensive picture of globalization’s influence on Internet security requires researching topics that exceed the borders of each particular discipline.

Literature Review

Globalization and its effects on the world economy, cultural discourse, and propagation of ideas have been studied in-depth. On the other hand, such issues as Internet security seem not to be sufficiently considered in their correlation with globalization. Moreover, the ways in which this worldwide process affected other spheres, and its patterns cannot be applied to cyberspace due to its specificities. Whereas geographical borders may interfere with commerce, they do not influence how the Internet is used as well as a nation’s size or whether other states acknowledge its sovereignty. As a consequence of technology spread acceleration and the possibility of global software development – processes that became possible due to globalization – Internet security experienced a leap in its evolution.

International communication and trade rendered possible by globalization also approximated the appearance of new technologies that otherwise would have been unavailable soon. According to Huang et al., the World Wide Web’s overall dominance is one such example – its prevalence and integrity facilitate Internet crime and makes its users especially vulnerable. Since, as of now, a universal remedy that would guarantee web application security does not exist, penetration testing is still the main defense line.

Social networks are another result of international integration and represent a domain where Internet security can be violated. Rathore et al., after a detailed study of threats and solutions in social networks, concluded that data leak prevention mechanisms and position monitoring systems could serve as a potential solution. Their article partially focuses on such security-ensuring methods as graph-based anomaly detection techniques, content modeling algorithms, and community detection mechanisms. Furthermore, Witczynska accentuates the significance of both detecting and preventive measures, as risk reduction concerns not only avoiding attacks but also mitigating their impact. Still, the delineated methods may not suffice to manage the increasingly growing number of attacks efficiently.

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The threat of cyber-attacks is one of the most prominent issues that expanded with digital globalization. A study performed by Duic et al. in “International Cyber Security Challenges” explores strategic domination in cyberspace and its effects on Internet security for particular states, linking the issue to international communication. The authors hypnotize that the Internet will become a principal territory for conflicts and intelligence operations. The idea that cyberattacks could potentially become more habitual and even substitute conventional conflicts may seem as reserved to the distant future; nevertheless, it is predicted by several authors. Finnemore and Hollis discuss the role of effective preventive measures, emphasizing the importance of global cooperation that would result in worldwide adopted legal norms apropos of Internet security. The researchers propose approaching the challenges of Internet security and constructions of policies in this regard from the perspective of social sciences. Augmented by processes within globalization, the problem of Internet security prompts scholars to consider the creation of internationally recognized norms as a possible remedy.

The process of international unification further enables the future creation of relevant connections networks, such as the Internet of Everything and the Internet of Things. These advancements would substantially optimize transportation, the health sector, and production. Maple states that their formation is supported by the number of devices connected to the Internet and is supposed to have reached approximately twenty-eight billion by two thousand twenty. The present numbers and predicted growth could be due to the global scope that digital technologies occupy in everyday life. From the perspective of Melnik et al., the Internet of Everything can alter communication for future generations, and uniformed Internet security should serve as its cornerstone. As the Internet of Everything and the Internet of Things strain security and privacy, Maple names the five pillars of information assurance (confidentiality, integrity, availability, authenticity, and non-repudiation) as the primary basis for these systems. The researcher states that standardization and coordination are significant upcoming challenges in ensuring security on the Internet of Everything and the Internet of Things.

The growing reliance on high-speed communication and digital technologies overall, in addition to jeopardizing personal and national Internet security, leads to the globalization of cybercrime. Armencheva et al. state that in this era, global powers consider more extensive employment of cyber weapons (specific malware agents), increasing insecurity in cyberspace, Internet insecurity particularly. The researchers classify web 2.0 and web 3.0 technology as a ground for the usage of these weapons, which is not limited to data theft but also its alternations. Relatively new trends in Internet technologies such as web 4.0 and Big data not only open new prospects for business but also possibly compromise the security of regular Internet users and nations. As reported by Armencheva et al., the issues of state and commercial espionage, unauthorized access to data, and various types of Internet fraud could be aggravated with the extensive implementation of these technologies. Thus, global interconnectedness also serves to expand and facilitate the usage of malware.

Moreover, Internet security faces challenges posed by governments that potentially seek to control the data. Jong-Chen, in ”Data Sovereignty, Cybersecurity, and Challenges for Globalization,” expresses concerns about the expansion of attempts to limit data flow to borders of one country – how the international community manages these issues impacts the global information and communication technology profoundly. The propositions to enforce “data retention” and “data sovereignty” are, to a degree, controversial and contradict the ideas on which globalization is based. Samek and Shultz, in “Information Ethics, Globalization and Citizenship: Essays on Ideas to Praxis” support the idea that the most complicated issue with expanding connectivity is not increasing capacity, but managing it. The relevant novelty of these issues leads to disagreements about the basic terms, since there seems to be no overarching consent about what to call cyber weapon, Internet war, data sovereignty, et cetera. Therefore, the lack of unity apropos of the issue indicates abundant opportunities for investigation, especially interdisciplinary research, as the problem of Internet security is pertinent to several disciplines, both natural and social.

Research Methodology

Introduction

Choosing the methodological approach is a procedure that should consider the specificities of the topic and allow an individual to answer research questions most fully. The researchers should thoroughly consider different aspects of their study before starting to effectuate it, with research questions being the cornerstone of an investigation. Interdisciplinarity could pose additional restrictions on how research is conducted, for instance, in combining approaches and competencies needed in natural and social sciences. In the case of Computer Sciences, Mathematics, and globalization, complications emerge since the connection of the three domains seems to be underresearched, and issues that lie at the intersection of these disciplines are not overtly evident.

Methodological Approach

Investigating the manifestations of globalization and whether it influences Internet security and to what extent necessitates an integration of information, concepts, and theories from several not entirely related fields. The research’s essence presupposes qualitative data to obtain an in-depth understanding of the issue and formulate specific aspects of cybersecurity modified by increasing global connectivity and integration. Such data collection method as an examination of existing materials was used – the sources’ relevance and the scope of research served as the principal criteria for the selection. In this way, the collection of secondary data was performed. The gathered information is supposed to be processed using thematic analysis to identify the main effects of globalization on frequency, the efficacy of cyberattacks, and the development of measures and rules to counteract. This methodological approach appears to meet interdisciplinary research needs that involve collaboration between natural and social sciences.

Conclusion

Despite the positive effects of interconnectedness and interdependence, an increase in Internet insecurity and attempts to detain or manipulate information perhaps is one of its side effects. The threat of more extensive involvement of cyberspace and specifically the Internet, in power plays and wars, is one of the scholars’ concerns. On a smaller scale, globalization potentially also facilitated cybercrime via the expansion and unification of the World Wide Web. Considering this aspect, the proposed research could identify the gaps in the knowledge corpus of Computer Sciences and Mathematics in regard to managing data security on the Internet in the age of globalization.

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Reflective Essay

It is difficult to overestimate the impact of the rapid advancement of technologies on individual people and whole nations. With cyberspaces’ integration into social and private lives, concerns about Internet security and privacy began to be voiced more frequently. Pieces of advice to increase one’s online safety raging from not using Google Disc to using VPN may seem as reasonable on the surface, but globalization can change further how society perceives Internet security.

The measures that seemed sufficient once, international integration and its effects could make inefficient. The globalization of cybercrime appears to be facilitated by the same process that made global software development possible. Cross-border collaboration among Internet criminals provides a vital advantage, as they can act worldwide from developing countries where Internet law is only under consideration. This aspect accentuates the necessity of international collaboration to make the fight against cybercrime more efficient.

A global effort and implementation of international laws and measures for Internet security is a project that appears to be at the early stages of its evolution. Consequently, some researchers consider Internet activity regulation as one of the principal difficulties posed by globalization. Considering the place of the World Wide Web in contemporary societies’ lives, the absence of comprehensive, structured regulations seems inadequate.

Nevertheless, the development of practical measures to increase efficiency in deflecting cyber-attacks is another indispensable aspect given that present IP networks are under strain. Pioneering Internet security architectures that would enhance user privacy, access control, resilience, and evolvability is an area of increased interest. The future form of the Internet could be mostly dependent on the safety measures elaborated presently.

Since well-established security methods recede under the weight of cybercrime partially empowered by globalization processes, new solutions to the problem appear. Firstly, international measures and cross-border collaboration can assist in alleviating the issue. Furthermore, new security structures are at various stages of advancement globally. The current ubiquity and the usage of cyberspaces necessitate an increase in Internet security.

Bibliography

Armencheva, Ilina, Natalia Atanasova, and Ivaylo Ivanov. “Cyber Globalization as an In/ Stability Factor.” INTCESS 2019- 6th International Conference on Education and Social Sciences, (2019): 737-748.

Duic, Ivan, Vlatko Cvrtila, and Tomislav Ivanjko. “International Cyber Security Challenges.” International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics, (2017): 1309-1313.

Finnemore, Martha and Duncan B. Hollis. “Constructing Norms for Global Cybersecurity.” The American Journal of International Law 110, no. 3 (2016): 425-479.

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Huang, Hsiu-Chuan, Zhi-Kai Zhang, Hao-Wen Cheng, and Shiuhpyng Winston Shieh. “Web Application Security: Threats, Countermeasures, and Pitfalls.” Computer, 50, no. 6 (2017): 81–85.

Jong-Chen, Jin de. “Data Sovereignty, Cybersecurity, and Challenges for Globalization.” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 16, (2015): 112-114.

Maple, Carsten. “Security and Privacy in the Internet of Things.” Journal of Cyber Policy, 2, no. 2 (2017): 155-184.

Melnik, Sergey, Nikolay Smirnov, and Sergey Erokhin. “Cyber security concept for Internet of Everything (IoE).” Systems of Signal Synchronization, Generating and Processing in Telecommunications, (2017): 1-4.

Rathorea, Shailendra, Pradip Kumar Sharmaa, Vincenzo Loia, Young-Sik Jeongc and Jong Hyuk Parka. “Social Network Security: Issues, Challenges, Threats, and Solutions.” Information Sciences, no. 50, (2017): 43–69.

Samek, Toni and Lynette Shultz. Information Ethics, Globalization and Citizenship: Essays on Ideas to Praxis. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2017.

Wenxiu, Ding, Zheng Yan, and Robert H. Deng. “A Survey on Future Internet Security Architectures.” IEEE Access, 4, (2016): 4374-4393.

Witczynska, Katarzyna. “Effective Protection of Information Systems and Networks Against Attacks in the Era of Globalization.” Logistics and Transport, no. 141, (2019): 51-57.

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