The human body is a complex set of systems continually interacting to maintain life. People are trying to protect themselves against diseases by vaccinating as it can prevent the start of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to investigate different systems of the organism and choose whether vaccination is valid or not.
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The circulatory system consists of the blood vessels that rotate the blood around the human body. Its principal function is transferring of nutrients, oxygen, and immune factors to the organs and tissues. The system comprises the heart, the artery called aorta, arterioles, capillaries, and veins. The vessels have a pulmonary circuit where the blood becomes oxygenated and is transported from the right ventricle to the lungs and the systemic one that provides deoxygenated blood to the tissues. The portal circulation represents the additional network of vessels that eliminates toxins from the gastrointestinal tract. According to the source, “Three vessels come out of the aortic arch: the brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery” (“Circulatory routes,” n.d.). The lower limbs are supplied by the abdominal aorta. The two central veins are superior and inferior cava veins: the superior oven transfers the blood from the arms, thoracic cavity, and head, and the inferior vein is parallel to the abdominal aorta.
The other system supporting homeostasis is called the lymphatic system that represents networks of vessels that do not circulate but perform as a fluid that is delivered towards two drainage spots above the heart. Its primary function is cleansing the cellular space and drainage (Moore & Bertram, 2018). The lymphatic mechanism consists of primary and secondary lymphoid tissues, the spleen, and lymph nodes. The spleen functions as the filter of the blood and is located near the lateral border of the stomach. Tonsils are located at the front part of the pharynx and develop immunity pathogens against invaders. The lymph moves towards the heart, so to reach the subclavian artery from a left foot, the lymph will pass through the capillaries, aorta, and thoracic duct.
The immune system also protects the body by responding to a disease. It represents a sophisticated set of protection levels and is composed of blood, lymph, tissues, cells, and organs which interact with invaders to protect the body. The lymphocytes are the cells of the immune response to foreign entities (Mackay & Kallies, 2017). T-cells are located in the thymus and do not secrete antibodies, whereas B-cells mature in the bone marrow and produce antibodies.
Two abovementioned systems work in a junction, so the lymphatic system collects tissue fluid, destroys invaders, and returns fluid to the vascular system. Also, the organ called spleen, located in the lymph, eliminates foreign bacteria from the blood. The systems function collectively: cardiovascular, lymphatic, and urinary systems maintain water balance; the nervous system participates in glucose digestion and maintaining in the blood. The immune system supports homeostasis by preparing the body to tackle the pathogens and assist in healing. While the body is infected, the immune system evokes a fever and rapid blood flow to deliver oxygen to the cells containing the infection (Ranking & Artis, 2018). It means that the body can remove disease on its own.
Immunity can be innate and acquired: innate represents the inborn resistance, while acquired is about adaptation in the course of life. The latter type comprises natural protection influenced by genetics and artificial one induced by vaccines. Artificial form can be described within active immunity that comes from the exposure to a pathogen, and passive one that does not require such disclosure. This knowledge helps to understand the mechanism of vaccines. The vaccines are made from the dead germs that help to create antibodies after the injection and stay in your body, maintaining the immunity.
All in all, the immune system is strong enough to defend itself against infections. However, vaccines help to create a stronger resistance to diseases. Vaccination is safe and effective as it contains bacteria that supply strong defense against future infections and create better immunity.
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Circulatory Routes. (n.d.). Web.
Mackay L. K., & Kallies, A. (2017). Transcriptional regulation of tissue-resident lymphocytes. CellPress, 38(2), 94-103.
Moore, J. E., & Bertram, C. D. (2018). Lymphatic system flows. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 50(1), 459–482.
Ranking, L. C., & Artis, D. (2018). Beyond host defense: emerging functions of the immune system in regulating complex tissue physiology. CellPress, 173(3), 554-567.