The organizational culture is a significant part of modern management science that has practiced in the private sector business organizations to comply with the promptly changing environment to achieve organizational effectiveness. Beliefs and values, customs and attitudes, psychology and expertise all together form the Organizational Culture. Organizational culture may design to achieve organizational goals, but within the practice in some extent, this culture is supportive and some extend unsupportive. With the empirical evidence of The Pseudo-Wire Company (PWC), this paper would analyze the organizational culture of the company and argue where it is supportive to the goals of the Company and where not.
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To do so, this paper has analyzed the organizational behavior (OB) of PWC1. Considering the vision of PWC the organizational culture within the organizational behavior has presented in short and snappy as well as informative form. Apart from culture this assignment has also involved in- crisp of the organizational behavior (OB) exercised in the PWC with their goals mission, vision, and strategic plan. Describing the both supportive and unsupportive roles and parameters of OC2, the paper has drawn its conclusion with credible recommendations.
Literature of Organizational Behavior & Culture
Organizational Behavior (OB)
Stewart (1991, p. 91) mentioned that activities of the employees or personnel in an organization in terms of group, individuals are the study and application of organizational behavior (OB). Utilization of system tools is the course of action of OB. In another word, OB deals with affiliation among all employees and organization entering groups and social system. Achievement objectives of human, organizational and social are the issues play behind OB construction.
According to the above discussion, definition areas of OB include human behavior, leadership style, team feature, changes, etc. those together form organizational culture. Sequential phases considering social system included in these areas are elements, organizational development (OD), models of OB, work life-cycle during, learning from outcomes and required change (Stewart 1991, p.91).
Elements of Organizational Behavior
Stewart (1991, p.92) argued that four principle elements construct the foundation of an organizational Behavior. They are in respect of philosophy of the management, vision, goals, and values. Squashed form of these is the concept of organizational culture including formal and informal tasks of the firm concerning their social atmosphere. Job of culture is deciding entire organization’s leadership type, dynamics of the group as well as communication modes (nwlink.com 2009, p. 1). Workers direction of motivation scale articulate work life quality. Finally, this site also added that operation outline drawn through – performance quality of staffs, job satisfaction, individual development, and organizational growth (nwlink.com 2009, p. 1).
Organizational behavior models
Organizational behavior models are of four major types. They are:
Autocratic: Axerra Network (2008, p.1) reported that power of the authority during managerial orientation sketches the standard of this model. In this case, employees have to dependent on their superior at every task due to their job security and consequence of this working quality results too poor.
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Custodial: According to Axerra Network (2008, p.1) and Baker (2008) money or the economic resources organized the model. Deal & Kennedy (1982) argued that dependency on the organization, job security, and employee benefits are the motivation forces of the employees. Among these job security is the chief issue for the employees. Passive cooperation is the outcomes of this model.
Supportive: Employee involvement entire into a group under a certain leadership assemble this model. It ensures better job performance over and above employee participation. On the other hand, the employees anticipate performance evaluation.
Social system, Culture, and Individualization
Schein (1968, p.12) argued that in an organization, people from different norm and social system work together and to gain the goals. Alternatively, unusual modes of interaction forms are subsist multifarious in a social system. Both an organization and society is the place to exchange ideas, culture, and goods during human actions.
According to Schein (1968, p.12), beliefs, knowledge, customs, and practices make conformist manners develop awareness. These are the forms to introduce an unambiguous culture. Social responsibility, security, understanding, and stability are also consequence of culture.
Baker (2008, p. 10) stated that at the individualization, with the intention of influence the social system, a successful employee could challenge the culture. In following table, affiliation among socialization and individualization followed by their impact has plotted as below-
|Little ↓||Little ↓||Isolation|
|High ↑||Little ↓||Conformity|
Source: (Schein, 1968, pp. 1-15)
Organization could make the working atmosphere more creative through both of high individualization and socialization. Upshot of this would bring simpler solution of dilemmas, continuous organizational development, and better performance of employees and magnify competency of the firm. Individual performance appraisal is expecting- individual right, fair rewards, career development, self-respect and belonging to social networks. Impact of individualization has showed in following figure.
The Pseudo-Wire Company is an Israeli multinational company with its innovative product and service including cables and circuit emulation solutions to cover mobile operators, broadband wireless, Carrier Ethernet and so on. The mission statement of the company has stated that it kept continuous effort to reduce cost and increase profitability by implementing packet-based infrastructure. The PWC3 has extremely skilled team of professionals’ management, creative engineering, and well-organized marketing, sales, primarily from leading telecom standard and approval of ITU4, IETF,5 and MEF6 to sustain as global leader of packet-based solution.
Regarding to telecommunication and Internet or online media exploitation, Axerra Network Inc. has shaped the Pseudo-Wire Company in 2000. Pseudo has stated their journey from Tel Aviv, Israel. Prime operational locations are in USA, Israel, most of the EU countries, and Asia Pacific regions for both of technology partners and integrating system. Pseudo solutions have mostly utilized in generating traffic revenue worldwide. (PWC 2008, p. 4)
Product line and affiliated features of the Axerra Network has briefly described in following table.
|Telecommunication:Mobile wireless operators, MSOs cable, IP (Internet Protocol) and MPLS Network|| |
|Packet access network solution: Ethernet carrier, HFC cable, xDSL, PON and WiMAX|| |
|Source:(Axerra Networks 2008, pp. 1-4)|
Financial and management strength of Pseudo
Leading venture capital firms are source of strong financial aid of the PWC. Advisory board has engaged of experience senior telecom professionals assembling common vision and leadership program. Pseudo-Wire solutions has positioned in market with the technological aid of Axerra network. Professionals are from diverse background of telecom and datacom companies. Professionals involved in high experienced team, efficient and skilled at- engineering, financing, sales, marketing, and managing humans resources (Axerra Networks 2008, p. 3).
Larger partnership program that mutually beneficial for both the parties. Key partners are – Asia Pacific Vendors, US, European, System Integrators and Distributors, Resellers those Value-Added. Common goal of PWC and their partners is to provide higher-class hardware and software with soul products, value enlargement, and ensure after sale best customer solution. (Axerra Networks 2008, p. 3)
Application of organizational culture in the Pseudo Company
PWC encompasses five phases during exercise of organizational culture. Sequence of these phases has given below followed by a brief account.
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- Organizational development (OD)
- Work-life quality
- Crafted advantages while performing
- Learned actions and
Organizational Development of PWC
The grounded on the definition of organizational behavior and organizational culture, considering sequential levels of PWC’s OD tasks have the systematic tool of applied behavioral science. PWC’s tasks, objectives, and execution are the three prime sequence of its OD. A short sketch of these levels of the PWC has plotted in the following table in conjunction with effects. (Cunningham & Eberle 1990, pp. 55-70)
| || || || |
|Source: (Cunningham & Eberle 1990, pp. 55-70)|
Key features of PWC’s OD
Following are the seven key criteria of PWC.
- First, Humanistic Values: According to the Company Profile of the Pseudo-Wire Company, it sincerely follows positive beliefs or values in accordance of ‘the McGregor’s Theory Y’ regarding to employee prospect;
- Second, Systems Orientations: assemble norms of the organization involving- personnel, structure, and technology.
- Third, Experiential Learning: emphasize on practical amalgamation rather than theory and lecture during training so that employees will simply prevail over their dilemmas at work.
- Forth, Problem Solving: concept of Action Research assembling primary and secondary steps like- problem identification, collecting data, correction during action, evaluate progress; take necessary adjustments etc. are applied here.
- Fifth, Contingency Orientation: before modification select right actions.
- Sixth, Change Agent: sequential flow of stimulating, facilitating and coordination of change are the phases (Cunningham & Eberle 1990, pp. 55-70)
- Finally, Interventions Levels: since more then one time problem arises in the organization, strategies are intervened proportionally. (Cunningham & Eberle 1990, pp. 55-70)
PWC’s Work-life quality
The aim that PWC’s applied in work-life quality or the QWL7 regarding to reach organizational goals during improving job and working atmosphere for both of the personnel and the organization. In short, what is the ratio between support and spite during the working atmosphere? According to Koch (2006, p. 55) one of the effective tools of QWL is the “Job Design”; therefore, the PWC has followed several steps of job design. They are-
- Firstly, recruit those people who are suitable for routine tasks, submissive to laws and sincerely followed jobs supporting tasks.
- Secondly, motivate employees through high payments against their better performance.
- Third, adopt latest technical supports foe the routine job automation.
- At last, redesign the job whether it favors organizational development at an optimal level.
Job enlargement and job enrichment are the two chief component of job redesign. Excluding monotonous chores expanding the region of job design, add values and varieties. Consequence of these jobs would be friendlier and increases quality of employee performance efficiently. (Cunningham & Eberle 1990, pp. 55-70)
On the other hand, issue job enrichment, produces additional motivation in the working atmosphere. Maturity, control, and responsibility boost their depth while job performance accomplish. Value addition is higher by job enrichment, but in some of the cases job enlargement is oppose from job enlargement and rather simpler than those. Difference between these two components of the job design of the Pseudo-Wire has illustrated in following table. (Cunningham & Eberle 1990, pp. 55-70).
Crafted advantages of PWC’s performance
Eight fundamental merits have generated by the Pseudo during job enrichment. They are:
- Individual growth over and above organization
- Provide higher job satisfaction
- Individual self-actualization
- The Pseudo-Wire has enjoyed better employee performance
- Motivation of the employees goes through intrinsically
- Today’s Pseudo-Wire passes through low absenteeism, higher return and practice of organizational ethics and values is also higher than before
- Reduce unemployment ratios by utilizing human resources
- Corporate social responsibility stayed at satisfactory level and labeled as an efficient organization (Cunningham & Eberle 1990, p. 4).
Modes of job enrichment improvement
According to Hackman & Oldham (1975, pp. 159-170), following are the modes of job enrichment utilized by the Pseudo-Wire.
- Skill Variety: Rather than single tasks performing a set of skilled tasks would required by the job enrichment course of action regarding to ensure value added performance.
- Task Significant: viewpoint of employees’ task significant assemble the individual performance impact on other personnel.
- Task-Identity: Hackman & Oldham (1975, pp. 159-170) and Robbins & Judge (2004) argued that nursing responsibilities and sense of completion is the motto of this job, which produces work performance in the light of complete piece.
- Autonomy: In the light of appropriate leadership style, decision making, control and performance evaluation of the generated autonomy concept in the Pseudo-Wire.
- Feedback: Both verbal and documentation have utilized while employee performance feedback is generated.
Learned actions: the pseudo-Wire applied in their action learning the concept of Revans’s ‘Worth Nothing’. This concept has stayed on the floor of following equation.
(L = P + Q); where L = Learning, P = Program knowledge assemble and Q = Insightful question asking ability
Execution period of this learning program is 6 to 9 months. Members of the learning team came from different background for example engineering, finance, sales and marketing, human resource management etc. regarding to solve organizational projects entire complex dilemmas during formal training period. On the other hand, learning from experiences requires discussion and analysis among team members repeatedly (Revans 1982, p.122).
Revans (1982, p.124) argued that ‘System Beta’ is the scientific foundation of Revans and entire process of the method has routed cyclically and need to appraise original hypothesis during the last phase and therefore, make decision. Sequential six phases of action learning has plotted below.
- First, construct idea or concept of problem solution. In other word, hypothesis origination;
- Second, experiment designing or the modes of comparing hypothesis and practical issues;
- Third, practical application, here evaluate effects;
- Forth, result observation, conduct primary and secondary data collection, which will be generate test outcomes;
- Fifth, result analysis; produce a complete sense of data;
- Sixth, analysis, comparison, compare hypothesis of first phase with the fifth phase’s result analysis.
Level of existence: level of existence has followed three segments as said in the following table.
|Terms of level||Outcomes|
| || |
|Source: (Revans, 1982)|
Changes: Koch (2006, p. 54) argued that change or alteration at work place is primary out comes of human prefrontal cortex and epiphanies. Short introductions of those are below.
Human prefrontal cortex: Koch (2006, p. 55) argued that prompt computational device that execute multiple tasks at once considering logic and responsibility. Comparatively prefrontal cortex is equivalent to RAM8 of the computer. It requires change while a lot of information has gathered. During workplace, change stipulate by personnel due to uncomfortable atmosphere, which generates low performance and motivation.
Epiphanies: Koch (2006, p. 55) provided the second key issue- “Epiphanies” producers through self-esteem and self-actualization. In other word, own resolution demands change. This phase also requires- reward and incentive for better performance. Make correction and reduce gap of learning and practice are also involve in this stage. Enlarge networking and communication to establish new businesses etc. that are the impact of “Epiphanies”.
Organizational goal: mission statement of the Pseudo offers following issues.
- Wire line enabling
- Low cost mobile services
- Profitability increase
- Value added offer for both IP service and legacy and
- Packet-based infrastructure (Axerra 2008, p. 1)
At the beginning of the Pseudo-Wire, the Axerra Networks invest here to introduce following concepts and their proper utilization.
- Multi-Service over Packet (MSoP) terminology
- Multi-Service over IP
- Circuit Emulation service over IP
- Frame Relay over IP
- ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) over IP
These PWC solutions are now ingredient of following merits.
- Today’s network providers
- Traffic revenue crafting
- Cost savings substantial
- Opportunities for new revenue streams
- Top-tire operators and
- Profitable their business worldwide
Axerra Network (2008, p.1) argued that unique and cutting-edge are the key features provided by the Axerra Network to resolve the challenges of the Pseudo-Wire’ in two prime areas-circuit emulation and packet access networks. Regarding to earn and cost reduction, previously mentioned products and services are enabling smart capabilities. In addition, value added services are also included under this. In case of voice and data services, Pseudo’s key facilities are – 2G, 2.5G, and 3G. On the other hand, packet access network involved in- Ethernet carrier, HFC cable, xDSL, xPON and WiMAX so on. During both of the cases, PWC is the most reliable Backhaul. More specifically, additional bandwidth does not require extra charge during operation.
For medium and small-sized business, above solutions leverages their current infrastructures as well as boosts commercial supports. Relevant areas of this segment are MSOs, mobile backhaul, voice legacy, required data services for the clients, alternative mobile operators by T1/E1 leased lines etc. Regarding to uniform all categories transport services Pseudo-Wire has the availability of multi-service strategies. Not only in assemble form, single packet network has also generated benefits from those. During access network, available leverages areas are Ethernet carrier, HFC cable, xDSL, xPON and WiMAX. On the other hand, IP and MPLS are using in the core network and providing adequate support for both of legacy field and emerging services (Axerra Network 2008, p. 1).
Accommodation of organizational culture in the Pseudo Company
Axerra Network (2008, p.1) argued that faster growth of telecommunication requires voice services and high-speed data with the proportion of mobile subscriber enlargement. Within 2010, worldwide mobile subscriber would be 4.2 billion where as now it is 2.6 million. Consequence of this, quality of packet access network solution need to reach optimal level affiliated with wide range. On the other hand, high-margin revenue spawns through adopting following legacy infrastructure.
- Leased Line (LL)
- Frame Relay (FR)
- Circuit Switched Voice (CSV) and
- Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Regarding to component of packet accessing network solution, which has already described in the company profile of the Pseudo-Wire, most desired qualities are in below. (Axerra Network 2008, p.1)
- Expansion of service offerings
- Network optimization
- Packet access at lower cost
- Converged network accessibility
- Immediate translation
- Significant revenue growth
- Return on Investment (ROI) for the shorter period etc.
Above issues have already achieved with appropriate OB of the Pseudo-Wire and on the other hand, these are a great challenges for them to keep it up. Considering all of those organization culture (of this company accommodate following honors and awards though their company has placed at growing phase.
Honors and Awards, (Axerra Network 2008, p.4): Though with the aid of Axerra Network, the Pseudo-Wire was constructed in 2000, but within eight years, they have earned following eight prestigious awards that was amazing in the telecommunication industry. Precise forms of their achievement are described below.
- “2008 Israel Fast 50”: in the contest of Deloitte’s prestigious, Axerra won this award due to their fastest growing. More specifically, in Israel first fifty fastest growing company has elected for this award.
- “The GSM Association GLOBAL MOBILE Awards 2007”: Axerra Network (2008) stated that for “Best Radio Access Products and Services”, Axerra won this award and composed as “commended finalist” for the second time.
- “2006 Red Herring 100 Europe Award”: For playing significant role in innovation and technology, Axerra has selected for this award.
- “SuerQuest Runner Up SUPERCOM M2001”: fastest growth with cost effective telecommunication technology infrastructure brought this award for the Axerra.
- 10 Hottest Technologies of 2003, 2004, and 2005: Telecommunications Magazine has selected PWC for its outstanding performance over and above contribution in traffic revenue of telecommunication.
An assemble decision of the Red Herring Magazine and the Israel Venture Association, Axerra won “Israeli Startup Contest 2006”. More specifically, this award only for the Israeli high-tech who ranked at the top nine start up. Entire of this paper, it has already talked about that the Axerra Network introduces and invests for the development of the Pseudo-Wire Company, which was started its journey in 2006. In addition, the Pseudo was born after an intense research and development of the Axerra. Birthplace of the Pseudo was Tel Aviv, Israel but now they have expanded their major cities of the significant countries like- USA, EU countries, and Asia Pacific. At once, their prior customers demand and their business associates. On the other hand, entire of the company employ a sound atmosphere for innovation. Consequence of these they achieved previously mentioned honors and awards (The Pseudo-Wire Company 2009, p. 4).
Organizational culture of the Pseudo is mostly monitored and controlled by automation leadership style. Limitation of this approach makes the employees dependent on the superiors. Taking into account this, assemble form of custodial and supportive model would boost their recent success in their innovative areas. On the hand, continuation of employees’ motivation through reward and incentive is an efficient initiative. In case of business strategy formulation, they are walking on the appropriate path. With the company of continuous innovation, their cost and multi-service products would be future market leader. At last, this paper likes to conclude through prescribe that continuous improvement both of the employees, products and services over and above the organization, favorable working atmosphere involving globally required OD and OC, skill and efficient research and development (R & D) team compose of different background would magnify success spot at optimal level as their hard and soul involvement.
This analysis of the organizational culture of Pseudo Company makes it comprehensible recommendation that.
- Organizational culture of Pseudo Company is meaningfully essential for the flourishing organizational change of Pseudo and maximizing the value chain of its human capital,
- Management of Pseudo Company should gain a serious management competency from its Organizational culture,
- For Pseudo Company selecting the right culture is the necessary and but not sufficient condition for Pseudo to gain the organizational effectiveness.
The significant challenge for the managers of Pseudo Company is to find out what would be the most effectual culture for the organization Pseudo Company and when and how it would be necessary to revolutionize its organizational culture as well.
In the light of the Pseudo-Wire Company, this paper has presented the concept of organizational culture along with organizational behavior. Besides these, theoretical concepts, models and other accessories of organizational culture, informative overview of Pseudo Company, a broader for of Pseudo’s goals through its mission, vision, objectives, and strategic plans has also plotted here. From previously mentioned discussion, it has focused that Pseudo has originated from Israel and now it exists in the major cities around world. Their industry developed through telecommunication and packet accessing network solution. Business strategy grounded on low cost products and services for both of their business partners and their clients. Moreover, they highlighted multi-service products and achieved more than eight awards from three years old.
Axerra Network, 2008. Company Profile of the Pseudo-Wire Company. Para 1-15. Web.
Baker, K. A. 2008. Management Benchmark Study: Organizational Culture. [PDF]. US Air University. Web.
Cunningham, J. B. & Eberle, T., 1990. A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign. Personnel, pp. 1-5. Web.
Deal, T. E. & Kennedy, A. A., 1982. Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, NY: Basic Books.
Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R., 1975. Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol 60, pp. 159-170. Web.
Koch, C., 2006. The New Science of Change, CIO Magazine, 2006, pp. 54 – 56. Web.
nwlink.com, 2009. Organizational Behavior.
Revans, R. W., 1982. The Origin and Growth of Action Learning, 1st ed. Krieger Pub Co.
Robbins, P. S. & Judge, A. T., 2004. Organisational Behavior, 12th ed. Prentice Hall.
Schein, E., 1968. Organizational Socialization and the Profession of Management. Industrial Management Review, vol. 9 pp. 1-15, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stewart, J., 1996. Managing Change through Training and Development. 2nd ed. Kogan Page Ltd.
The Pseudo-Wire Company, 2009. Company Profile of The Pseudo-Wire Company. Web.
The Pseudo-Wire Company, 2009. Market Overview of the Pseudo-Wire Company. Web.
- The Pseudo-Wire Company
- Organizational culture
- The Pseudo-Wire Company
- International Telecommunication Union
- Internet Engineering Task Force
- Metro Ethernet Forum
- Quality of Work Life
- Rrandom access memory