Validity is the effectiveness of a scale score giving a sound and meaningful reflection of what it is intended to measure while reliability is validity is the correctness of a scale score in measuring what it claims to measure.
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Explain the types of reliability and validity are used
- Test re-test reliability or stability reliability –in this form of reliability two or three tests are taken in different periods. The period may range from years to months, or even hours. Then a particular scale is used to compare the similarity of scores taken on different occasions. Scale scores from different occasions are usually quantified using Pearson’s correlation coefficients.
- Scale homogeneity or stability internal consistency. In this type of reliability, the ability of items on a particular scale to measure the same trait is assessed. Cronbach’s alpha is the measurement that is used to determine the measure of internal consistency in this type of reliability (Whiston, 2007).
Validity is the correctness of a scale score in measuring what it claims to measure.
- Construct validity. it is the validity of a measurement that is established by determining its ability to give measurements that are meaningful and consistent as per the definition of the test. Validation assessments of a test are done to determine the soundness of the proposed interpretation of a given test.
- Criterion validity. It is the assessment of how a single variable or a set of variables’ outcomes can be used to reflect outcomes from other variables. To provide the criterion validity of an assessment, one has to demonstrate that the scores on the test have similarities to an external variable or variables.
Areas of concern and strength.: (e.g., low coefficients, or weaknesses, and high coefficients, or strengths)
The ones that are problematic are achievement, infrequency, S.D, independence, and morals. They tend to be problematic because it’s clearly observable that they have low coefficients which are a sign of weakness. They also tend to have low Cronbach’s alpha which shows that they are volatile. This can also be suggestive that the behavior assessed is of a specific situation (Whiston, 2007).
Articulate how sample size and nature of population may influence the constructs purportedly measured by the test, observing any strengths and weaknesses in these areas
Sample size and nature of the population are the two main influences on the constructs purportedly measured by the test. The test results clearly show great validity of the results since the expected results in the given sample i.e. in the case of the finances there is a great difference between the male and female sample simply because male students are more engaged in income-generating activities than their female counterparts. This explains the reason for their higher score in finances putting into account the male sample under consideration in this test is lower than the female sample. Cronbach’s alpha is low on achievement, infrequency, S.D, independence, and morals which are characteristic of the nature of the population under test in this given sample. Strengths of this sample are in affection, affinitive, and altruistic; these strengths can be found in a big size of same nature of population hence nature of population and sample size can be as the two most important factors to consider because they influence constructs purportedly being measured in a test in a great way.
Form an opinion of the test using the information you provide in your report
My opinion on the test is that its validity can be quantified because the results of the test show a strong resemblance to aspects measured toward individuals of the sample and population in real life. This test also attests to the importance of Cronbach’s alpha in giving meaningful results due to its high internal consistency. My opinion is that in order to get results from a given test that a representative of the entire population a more diverse sample has to be put into consideration because the results from this test can only be used a tiny part of the diverse population.
Whiston S. C. 2007. Principles and Applications of assessment in counseling by Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative research , 3rd edition, Web.