Abortion remains one of the most controversial topics in the world. Many people believe that it is wrong and consider it to be murder, where a significant number support it but for specific reasons. Abortion provides one of the unending and disturbing American moral and legal struggles. The topic introduces many ethical dilemmas relating to the moral status of the fetus and the meaning of human life (Kirkey). Arguments about pregnancy termination concentration on the rights and wrongs of intentionally ending a pregnancy before the scheduled childbirth is resulting in the demise of the fetus. Abortion remains to be a painful topic for both women and men facing the dilemma of making ethical decisions relating to whether or not to terminate the pregnancy. People continue to question whether abortions are morally wrong and whether it should be legal or illegal. Moral disagreements among critics do not stop people from performing abortions, even in countries where it is illegal. This research discussion argues that abortion is seriously wrong except for some instances.
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As noted above, abortion is morally wrong except for some circumstances. Many exceptions have been raised that allow abortion; for example, pregnancy resulting from rape and abortion in the first 14 days after conception in which people argue that the fetus has not matured to a person. Another exception includes cases where the pregnancy endangers the life of the mother as well as when the fetus is anencephalic. Many arguments discussion about abortion is considered to be intractable based on the symmetries that emerge from the scrutiny of the major arguments on either side. For example, critics argue that fetuses are both human and alive, and every human has the right to life. Hence, fetuses have the right to life, whereas women have the right to control their bodies. Nonetheless, the right to life for the fetuses overrides the right of a woman to control her body meaning than abortion is morally wrong.
Many medical and scientific developments have occurred since the United States Supreme Court provided a ruling about the Roe v Wade in 1973. This case has significant implications on the future of abortion (Lipka, and Gramlich). One of the major developments has been the rise of the neonatal intensive care and the subsequent lowering of the time of fetal viability. There has also been increased utilization of the sonogram and growing concerns for the link between fetal health and women’s occupational health. The case has facilitated many medical changes and legal developments that concentrate on the assessment of the fetus rather than the rights of women. Abortion is a complex issue that has raised many controversies in the country. Recent studies point at different reasons for keeping abortion legal in the United States. For example, prohibiting it could result in high rates of illegal abortion throughout the country. Therefore, there is an increased need for open discussion regarding the moral nature of abortion decisions and recognition not conferred as moral wisdom by constitutional freedom.
Before the Supreme Court’s decision regarding the Roe. Wade, abortion was illegal in 46 states; 16 states had laws identical to the requirements of the Model Penal Code. Such laws allow abortion if necessary, to ensure women’s life and health are protected. The Model Penal Code also allows abortion if a fetus would be born with a grave physical or mental defect or if the pregnancy results from rape or incest. Prior to the Supreme Court’s ruling, 32 states forbidden abortion except when it would save a woman’s life. The supreme court failed to uphold some of these state laws; for example, it did not defend state laws that prohibit abortion on the grounds that the fetus is a live human being.
There are many arguments for and against abortion; for example, some people argue that women have the right to choose since it is their body. Abortions are not an easy decision for women, and it should be solely a woman’s choice, not the pressure of lawmakers. These women understand their situations and therefore are better suited for making such decisions. Opponents of abortion base their arguments on the right to life. The counter women’s right to chose by arguing that the fetus has the right to life. They claim that both the life of the mother and the unborn child are equal, and thus the life of the unborn child should be considered before terminating a pregnancy. Hence, the argument towards the right to life and the right to chose presents two sides about abortion in an attempt to explain whether it should be legal or illegal.
Banning abortion is regarded as condemning women to death, but those opposed to abortion argue that there are other options. Recent studies indicate that every 11 minutes, a female dies from problems linked with insecure or risky pregnancy termination from globally. It means that making abortion illegal does not reduce the total number of pregnancy termination; rather, it increases the number of illegal and unsafe abortions. On the other side, critics opposed to abortion propose other options that they consider to be better (Chavez). They argue that an unwanted pregnancy does not mean being forced to raise the child, especially if you are unable to support the child. They propose better options, such as foster care or adoption of the child. Recent studies indicate that many developed countries have social services that can place a child with suitable foster parents allowing the mother time to think regarding whether to keep the infant. Hence, though many people are against making abortion illegal, there are better options that women can focus on instead of terminating a pregnancy.
Some groups argue that legalizing abortion does not necessarily mean more miscarriages. Abortions are legal in many countries, such as Netherlands, Germany, and Switzerland. The countries often record lower rates of abortion as compared to those nations where abortion is illegal. Countries that prohibit abortion heavily restrict access to contraceptives and sex education. Therefore, abortion represents one option alongside many family planning measures but should be performed safely and legally as well as on rare occasions. On the other side, some people argue that legalizing abortion is immoral based on religious grounds. They claim that life is sacred and begins at conception. Groups opposed to abortion claim that allowing free access to pregnancy termination may encourage individuals to view it as a form of contraception. Also, it may result in selective abortion, meaning that parents can terminate pregnancies if scans indicate the fetus is the wrong gender or is disabled. Such unethical abuse can be prevented by restricting abortion or making it illegal. Hence, there two sides of abortion, meaning that legalizing can be considered as immoral, whereas on the other side it does not mean an increased number of abortions.
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Advocacy groups, such as the Internation Campaign for Women Rights to Safe Abortion, argue that cultural and religious norms should not hinder or limit countries from implementing laws on safe pregnancy termination. They claim that enacting laws on safe abortion does not mean more women will be forced to terminate their pregnancies. The current stigmatization on abortion concerns has been increased by cultural and religious norms present in many countries. Advocacy groups support the implementation of abortion laws that demand the provision of quality and women-centred abortion care. The government should implement innovative strategies that reach underserved populations by the provision of support to women to equip them with the necessary resources to self-manage medical abortion. Governments should focus on improving access to and accessibility of medical and therapeutic abortion commodities.
In the United States, around 100 fetal heartbeat bills have been established in 25 states since 2011. Recent reports indicate that in 2019 approximately 16 states proposed prohibiting abortion at fetal heartbeat (Evans and Subasri 2). Currently, only three states across the country have successfully ratified such as proposed legislation including Arkansas, Lowa, and North Dakota. The bills enacted by these states were either passed by federal or state courts since the Supreme Court refused to hear them. Advocacy groups are using different argumentation and tactics to challenge the legal standards of early abortion ban legislation across the United States. Over the past decade, many legal and social movement tactics have been deployed in specific ways to challenge laws that ban abortion. The most active groups relate to reproductive health, deconstruct anti-abortion messaging, and rights and justice advocate groups. These groups use data or facts to apprise strategic tactics to promote sexual and reproductive health, rights, and fairness in the country as well as in other parts of the world.
The issue of abortion is still highly controversial following state legislation that restricts and regulate access to the procedure. Many of these state laws receive increased criticism and challenge from the federal courts with some being upheld, such as the rejection of state reserves for performing a pregnancy termination. For example, in 2018 Lowa adopted one of the United State’s most restrictive abortion laws following approval of a bill banning doctors from terminating a pregnancy if a fetus has a detectable heartbeat by Governor Kim Reynolds (“Abortion Topic Overview”). Other abortion laws have been enacted, such as those demanding spousal consent for terminating a pregnancy. Many groups continue to contribute or present their viewpoints regarding the ongoing debate, such as religious leaders, healthcare providers, politicians, and activities. Groups opposed to abortion often identify themselves as pro-life, whereas supporters of reproductive rights refer to themselves as pro-choice. Both groups of people have different opinions regarding abortion. Pro-life advocates may condone pregnancy termination in cases of rape or incest, whereas others take an uncompromising stance based on their beliefs that abortion is murder (“Abortion Topic Overview”). Some pro-choice activists contend that restrictions should be introduced on abortions. In contrast, others support laws that necessitate a waiting duration prior to performing an abortion procedure or legislations that demand minors to obtain permission or consent from their parents.
Many people who advocate or support abortions rights argue that limitations on abortions adversely impacts the poor, particularly those in less developed countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) approximations indicate that complications resulting due to unsafe pregnancy terminations cause deaths hundreds of thousands of womenfolk annually. WHO reports also indicate that the annual number of women who succumb due such problems has progressively lowered since the 1990s. Reports by Ipas, an international reproductive rights nonprofit organization attributes the decline to the enactment of abortion laws and increased access to safe pregnancy termination procedures and the use of effective contraception (“Abortion Topic Overview”). Nonetheless, the organization warns that the implementation of restrictive abortion policies in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-Central Asia continues to cause a high number of global deaths resulting from unsafe pregnancy termination. Activists of reproductive rights debate that banning abortion can make them cost-prohibitive for women who can only access limited resources. Most governments from across the globe control abortion procedures by implementing laws that define whether, when, wherefor, and how abortion should occur. Hence, they undertake active roles in regulating pregnancy terminations.
Overall, the legalization of abortion remains one of the most controversial topics globally. Many individuals, health care providers, politicians, and religious leaders offer their opinions regarding the moral value of abortion. The most influential historical event of pregnancy termination acts in the United States is the Supreme Court’s ruling of the Roe v. Wade case in 1973. The case triggers many developments, including the increased use of the utilization of the sonogram as well as the growing concerns about the link between fetal health and women’s occupational health. Currently, safe pregnancy termination is legal in many states, but some activist groups continue to oppose the legalization of abortion. Many people continue to call for legalization of abortion, whereas others continue to question its moral standing. In my opinion, abortion should be legalized for special cases, such as if the pregnancy was a result of rape as well as cases in which it threatens the life of the mother.
- ” Abortion Topic Overview”. Gale.Com, 2018.
- Chavez, Nicole. “The Rising Wave of Abortion Restrictions in America“. CNN, 2019. Web.
- Evans, Dabney P., and Subasri Narasimhan. “A Narrative Analysis of Anti-Abortion Testimony and Legislative Debate Related to Georgia’s Fetal “Heartbeat” Abortion Ban.” Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters, vol.28, no.1, 2020, pp. 1-18.
- Kirkey, Sharon. “As Abortion Debate Becomes Increasingly Polarized, Poll Shows the Views of Many Canadians are More Complicated“. National Post, 2020. Web.
- Lipka, Michael, and John Gramlich. “5 Facts About the Abortion Debate in America“. Pew Research Center, 2019. Web.