This report is about the analysis and comparison of hybrid and gasoline vehicles; and would use qualitative research method along with the definitions, description, background, findings, and interpretations of the models of Hybrid Ford Explorer and original gasoline vehicles.
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Hybrid vehicles make use of on-board rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS) and fuel-based power sources for vehicle propulsion. At the same time, gasoline vehicles are those vehicles that use internal combustion engines being fueled and run by gasoline.
Background of Study
This report is the evaluative contrast and comparison of hybrid vehicles with gasoline vehicles. Both kinds of vehicles are totally different from one another. Gasoline-powered vehicles have internal combustion engines which are run on gasoline.
The vehicles which are being operated electricity are in use for decades, but their products have never been in mass production. However, hybrid vehicles are the new technology that has seen enormous widespread welcome from its audience. Hybrid vehicles are manufacture as environmentally safe and provide the best alternative for gasoline vehicles.
Purpose of Study / Intended Audience
The main objective of this research report is to present an overview of hybrid and gasoline vehicles. This report has been assembled to have a wide vision and understanding of the comparison between both types of vehicles with every necessary detail and description which is needed to put in for the perspective of the hybrid and gasoline vehicles. It is made for an undergraduate degree report standard, and the main audience of this report is the professor of the student who has prepared this document.
Method of Inquiry
To gather information for this topic, the inquiry method was chosen is the Secondary Research Method. This type of research includes the usage of the information gathered from sources, such as the Internet, Libraries, Books, Business Journals, General Publications, and any medium available easily to the researcher. The model of Hybrid Ford Explorer would be compared with original gasoline vehicles.
Limitations of Study
The limitations faced while compiling this report are; The research of the researcher could be biased because of the qualitative data representative on the web; The information present on the are several. Hence the information displayed is limited because there are numerous sources present, and all of them cannot be presented in this report; The research carried out is not extensively complete and is carried out by a student; hence, the information may face conflicts or could be different from the point of view of the lecturer.
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Global Warming is the increasing average measured temperature which is measured to compare the previous and present temperature difference caused by pollution and other factors.
Biodiesel is an alternative form of fuel produced from vegetable oil for several purposes.
Greenhouse Gases are the form of gases that absorbs heat or radiations and contributes to global warming by reflecting those radiations from the surface of the Earth.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this study revolves around the research on the model of Hybrid Ford Explorer and Gasoline Vehicles.
This section has briefly described the inquiry methods which are used to draw certain conclusions for this research report. Expressive details along with the secondary research methods sources have also been listed in this chapter. The next chapters would carry the literature involved for the study of hybrid and gasoline vehicles.
The first topic for discussion and investigation is Gasoline Vehicles.
Gasoline typically means fuel that is used in the internal combustion engines of motor vehicles as a running and operating medium. Gasoline fuel runs as the energy source for the engine of the vehicle. Gasoline-powered vehicles and engines make use of internal combustion power systems. At present, gasoline vehicles are the most common medium of transportation in the world because they are economical, and the fuel is available very easily in the marketplace and nearby gas stations (UNEPS 23).
The results found about the gasoline vehicles are listed as under (Zhao 35-113):
- Gasoline-powered vehicles are the most frequently used source of vehicles in the entire world and have fuel tanks that provide and transmit energy to the main engine.
- Gasoline-powered vehicles contribute to global warming by releasing greenhouse gases, and the majority of vehicles emitting greenhouse gases are gasoline-based
- Production of gasoline contributes to increasing the pollution impacts
- Gasoline contains MTBE, which is a cancer-causing agent, while pregnant women are told not to be exposed to gasoline as it could create childbirth problems
- Gasoline production has to lead the world to rainforest destructions
- The production of gasoline vehicles is correspondent to the manufacturing of a bio-diesel vehicle as they are available in mass quantity very easily to the consumers
- The fuel for gasoline is readily available in every area’s gas station
Interpretation of Findings
(Dixon, Porche, Kulick, Rand 4) Gasoline vehicles are most common in the world because they are economically viable and readily available as fuel is accessible in nearby gas stations. Companies have developed technologies using gasoline-powered vehicles. However, gasoline adds pollution due to the emission of greenhouse gases. 30% of the total greenhouse gases released is due to gasoline-based transportation, resulting in global warming. MTBE present in gasoline emission is a cancer agent, and they are also harmful to pregnant ladies because it could cause childbirth diseases and complications.
Fuel extraction for gasoline has affected the ozone layer, climatic conditions and has destroyed rainforests. Manufacturing of gasoline vehicles is equivalent to biodiesel vehicles, as production of these vehicles is the most minimum environmentally destructive for the automotive industry. This is because the production of any automobile consumes a lot of energy which releases pollution in the air; for example, burning of coal and furnaces, toxic fumes released by painting procedure, the energy released for molding and melting of metals or plastic, and many others. Many automobile manufacturing organizations have worked together to reduce the effects of gasoline pollution, and they have succeeded in creating environmentally safe gasoline vehicles by using modern technologies. These companies have also made fuel-efficient vehicles that consume less gasoline fuel and releases less amount of toxic gases in the air, which helps in reducing the pollution to high extents (Zhao 35-113).
The first topic for discussion and investigation is Hybrid Vehicles – Hybrid Ford Explorer.
Hybrid vehicles are also known as Hybrid electric vehicles, Petroleum-electric hybrid vehicles, or HEV. Hybrid vehicles use two or more district power resources to propel themselves. The power used by the hybrid vehicles could be solar, wind, hydrogen, gasoline, diesel fuel, compressed air, coal, wood or solid combustibles, or human power which includes pedaling or rowing. It combines the internal combustion engine with that of one or more electric motors (Miller, IEE 17).
The results about Hybrid Ford Explorer are listed as under (Husain 87-147):
- Hybrid Ford Explorer has fuel economy and storage capacity to store and reuse energy
- The batteries used in the Hybrid Ford Explorer are less toxic in nature
- Hybrid vehicles improve environmental conditions as they release the fewer amount of gases
- There are certain raw materials and other elements which face a shortage in the production
- The fuel for Hybrid Ford Explorer is readily available at almost every gas station nearby
- They are much expensive and are not readily available
- Hybrid Ford Explorer vehicles reduce the toxic emission of gases into the environment
- They do contribute to greenhouse emissions, but at a very low rate with low gas emissions
- However, the production of any hybrid vehicle may contain the same amount of pollution just like the gasoline vehicles
- The production of Hybrid Ford Explorer batteries is very destructive and pollution-oriented in nature
Interpretation of Findings
(Kreith, Goswami; p323, 2007) Hybrid Ford Explorer is one of Ford’s best-selling SUVs. This model is known for its best-providing gas mileage and promises 50% fuel usage improvement. Ford Explorer helps to maintain a safe environment and less pollution because the amount of gases released is way less than gasoline vehicles. They do contribute to the greenhouse effect, but it is very less in quantity as compared to the gasoline vehicles. Hybrid Ford Explorers are said to be the most reliable and eco-friendly to use as compared to gasoline vehicles. They are more expensive than gasoline vehicles because they have more technologies to protect the environment. This is the reason that hybrid vehicles are often not readily available, and the purchaser has to wait for several weeks or a couple of months after ordering a hybrid vehicle, and the price of any hybrid vehicle could be equivalent to that of a biodiesel vehicle. The range of hybrid vehicles has widened tremendously; as, heavy vehicles, light vehicles, commercial vehicles, road transport, air transport, ships, and rail transports also make use of hybrid technologies (Ehsani 211).
(Kreith, Goswami; p323, 2007) At present, hybrid vehicles contain greater fuel economy, and the fuel is also readily available in nearby gas stations because of their popularity. Hybrid vehicles help in improving environmental conditions by reducing the release of toxic gases into the air. However, the production of hybrid vehicles may be considered pollution-oriented because of the fumes produced during the manufacturing of hybrid batteries. The acidic materials which power the batteries are very dangerous and poisonous in nature and cause land and water pollution when released into water and land for waste management.
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Interpreted Summary of the Findings
Gasoline vehicles are the most viable and common transportation. The fuel source of gasoline automobiles is widely available. Almost all gasoline-based vehicles release greenhouse gases which spread certain diseases and pollution. Thirty percent of the total pollution is due to the greenhouse gases discharged by gasoline vehicles. Several other drawbacks of using gasoline vehicles include ozone layer damage, rainforest destruction, and an increase in global warming. Gasoline vehicles are easy to obtain and purchase, and they are widely used, and people are well known for their using them. Automobile companies have now succeeded in manufacturing gasoline vehicles that consume fewer fuels, are environmentally and human health-friendly (Zhao 35-113).
Hybrid Ford Explorer is one of Ford’s best-selling SUVs for its best-providing gas mileage and promises of 50% fuel usage improvement. It is maintaining a safe environment and less pollution because the amount of gases released is way less than gasoline vehicles. They do contribute to the greenhouse effect, but it is very less in quantity as compared to the gasoline vehicles. Hybrid Ford Explorers are also very expensive in nature than other vehicles and are equivalent in the price of biodiesel vehicles. The hybrid vehicles are designed to show and are available through the local automobile dealers, but the increasing demand for hybrid vehicles might cause some waiting periods for the buyer. Apart from that, the biggest environmental impact caused by hybrid vehicles is while the production of their batteries which is substantial due to the factor destructive mining, which causes pollution, toxic fumes, and is poisonous in nature (Kreith, Goswami; p323, 2007).
The future recommendations for the gasoline and hybrid vehicles are listed as under (Kreith, Goswami; p323, 2007):
- Gasoline vehicles are needed to make more environment friendly
- Hybrid vehicles should be made more readily available with mass production
- The production of hybrid batteries should be made pollution-free
- Prices of hybrid vehicles might get down a bit because technology is getting advanced with the passage of time, and technologies are made available and handy for the people
- The production of both vehicles could be converted into environmentally friendly
Frank Kreith, D. Yogi Goswami; 2007, Handbook of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Published by CRC Press, p323.
United Nations Environment Programme Staff (UNEPS), 2002, Older Gasoline Vehicles in Developing Countries and Economies in Transition: Their Importance and the Policy Options for Addressing Them, Published by Stationery Office, p23.
Fuquan Zhao, 2004, Advanced Developments in Ultra-clean Gasoline-powered Vehicles, Published by Society of Automotive Engineers, p35-113.
Lloyd S. Dixon, Isaac Porche, Jonathan Kulick, Rand Corporation, Science and Technology Policy Institute (Rand Corporation), 2002, Driving Emissions to Zero: Are the Benefits of California’s Zero Emission Vehicle Program Worth the Costs?, Published by Rand Corporation, p4.
John M. Miller, Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2004, Propulsion Systems for Hybrid Vehicles, Published by IET, p17.
Iqbal Husain, 2003, Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Design Fundamentals, Published by CRC Press, p87-147.
Mehrdad Ehsani, 2004, Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fundamentals, Theory, and Design, Published by CRC Press, p211.