Cyber Security Is Not a New Issue


The Internet acts as one of the fundamental parts of the modern digitalized society that enhances fast data exchange and ensures the easy, quick, and effective performance of the majority of existing tasks. The growing significance of the Internet gave rise to the issue of cybersecurity risks as opportunistic people sought a chance to interfere with the operation of different organizations and corrupt them. For this reason, the focus of cybersecurity acquires an utmost priority and should be given noteworthy attention to protect the existing order and ensure the effective functioning of major institutions. There is a need to comprehend cybercrime since this is essential to know the manner in which criminals are employing the Internet and carrying out a variety of illegal activities and what could be done to avoid the incidence of such actions. The degree of critical information that an individual or company chooses to share on the Internet ought to be cautiously considered. Successful interventions will make sure that sensitive data held on electronic gadgets, cloud servers, and company databases are effectively safeguarded against hackers and other cybercriminals. Cybersecurity is an essential component of data integrity because it ensures information safety, privacy, and accessibility.

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With the rising technological developments across the globe, threats regarding the safety of data held by many organizations and individuals are increasing. Cybersecurity entails the defense of personal electronic gadgets or systems in organizations and government agencies, the information stored, and cyberspace networks against spying or attack. It is a vital issue for organizations and businesses around the world. The Internet is one of the integral parts of the modern digitalized society that contributes to the fast data exchange and helps to perform the majority of existing tasks quickly and effectively. The rise of this tool provided multiple opportunities for the further development and achievement of new levels of evolution (Wang, Lau, & Gerdes, 2018). At the same time, the growing importance of this tool gave rise to the problem of cybersecurity as opportunistic people acquired a chance to interfere with the functioning of various organizations and corrupt them (Simon & de Goede, 2015). For this reason, the issue of cybersecurity acquires top priority and should be given significant attention to preserve the existing order and guarantee an effective functioning of central institutions.


Cybercriminals employ other gadgets at a distance in an effort to access other systems over the Internet. Applications utilized by cybercriminals include malicious software (malware), which may encompass Trojans, worms, spyware, or viruses. Today, hack security is still not considered by some individuals as one of the major concerns. However, statistical evidence shows that there is a tendency towards the growth in the number of maleficent actions performed via the Internet and with the help of different software (Diffee & Datta, 2018). Hackers and cybercrime are presently some of the main threats to the functioning of society and its safety (Hatleback, 2018). For instance, the scandal associated with the recent presidential election in the USA and the use of various digital tools to manipulate results prove the necessity to monitor this aspect and introduce appropriate measures to prevent the future deterioration of the situation (Cowley & Greitzer, 2015). In an organization or any company, there are numerous threats such as cybercrime, cyberwar, and cyberterrorism concerning their systems, networks, or crucial information. Cybersecurity is a major issue in many countries across the world, and research needs to be carried out to establish effective interventions towards the mitigation of the problem.

Problem Statement

Cyber-associated criminal activities are growing at a swift pace around the globe. Hacking coupled with the use of viruses is employed to obtain vital personal information illegally. There is a need to understand cybercrime since it is fundamental to know the way criminals are utilizing the Internet to carry out various illegal activities and what may be done to prevent the occurrence of such actions. The Internet has become saturated with vital personal data over the years. Moreover, some personal information is now easily accessible. The extent of critical information that a person or organization decides to share on the Internet ought to be carefully contemplated. Just a simple post shared on any social media platform may provide leeway to more crucial personal details than initially planned. Cybersecurity should be precedence due to the increasing application and simplicity of access to information on the Internet. If people, organizations, or businesses are not careful with the information shared in cyberspace, the identity of the user could be easily taken, devoid of the owner’s consent or their financial accounts drained. Cybersecurity is an important concern not only for government and international agencies but also for the average Internet user.

Research Question

This term paper will use the following question.

What are the most effective interventions that may be implemented in organizations and companies to safeguard their systems, data, and networks against cyberattacks?


Regarding the concerns of cybersecurity and the growing importance of the Internet, along with the poor understanding of cybercrime and its essential characteristics, this research project will employ the following objectives:

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  1. To analyze the concept of cybersecurity, its importance, and role in the functioning of contemporary society
  2. To show the negative impact of hackers and cybercrime on various organizations and processes and analyze possible results
  3. To investigate the problem of security and measures that can be performed to avoid the further deterioration of the situation and attract attention to the discussed problem

The introduction of these objectives was necessitated by the fundamental need to research the topic of cybersecurity as one of the essentials from various perspectives and outline the most problematic aspects associated with it. The objectives will help to conduct in-depth research on the problem and describe the most important factors that should be considered.


First, it will be critical to review the literature regarding the growing importance of the Internet and its role in the existing society. This will help to create the theoretical framework for the discussed problem. Second, the existing cyber threats will be evaluated with the primary aim of emphasizing the problems organizations might face and the negative consequences that may appear. Finally, possible approaches to cybersecurity will be analyzed to create a final term paper that includes answers to all the objectives outlined.

Literature Review

The world is currently in a digital era where the Internet is part of daily operations. With advancements in technology, countries across the globe have been struggling to secure personal, financial, government, and organizational data. The United States is experiencing about half a million cyberattacks each minute, which makes it nearly impossible to shut exploited susceptibility promptly and insulate an attack (Simon & de Goede, 2015). Sadly, computers are not the only devices that are prone to cyberattacks since mobile phones have Internet connections. This makes it essential that companies, organizations, international agencies, and individuals implement an effective approach to protecting their systems and electronic devices. Certainly, as people make progress into the future, the rate of cultivation violations will continue to upsurge across cyberspace. Data breaches arise the moment hackers take advantage of weaknesses in vulnerable systems. This makes it possible for hackers to pull out and access private data without the knowledge or permission of the owner. Understanding why hackers target government agencies, organizations, and financial institutions is equally helpful. These cybercriminals make attacks where significant levels of confidential data are held and where it is possible to find huge amounts of money.

Cyberattacks against organizations and government agencies are growing at an alarming rate. Nevertheless, people have continued to disregard such occurrences until when it is very late. Knowing the motives behind numerous cybercrimes may enable people, companies, and governments to focus on sections that are susceptible to attacks (Diffee & Datta, 2018). Hackers have established that large companies, organizations, and government agencies process a huge amount of data each day. The level of data that is likely to be obtained with a successful attack acts as a motivating factor for cybercriminals. Information is power, and data concerning any organization or agency is its greatest basis of control.

It has been established that organized criminal gangs particularly use the Internet to carry out identity theft, extortion, and online deception. In most instances, hackers exploit the knowledge that most organizations have minimal defenses that are easily penetrable. The moment cybercriminals access vital information regarding an organization, they have the freedom to share the data on Black Market platforms, perform underground trading, or use it for their benefit in any other way. On the same note, cybercriminals may navigate through organizational details while scanning massive amounts of personal bank account numbers, social security particulars, and debit cards, to mention a few (Cowley & Greitzer, 2015). Despite major companies falling victim to cyberattacks, other organizations continue to experience the same problem attributable to the lack of effective interventions to address the problem. Cybercriminals continue to take countries and even government agencies by storm. Effective interventions will ensure that sensitive information held on local devices, cloud servers, and organizational databases is successfully safeguarded against hacking and other cybercrimes.

Wang et al. (2018) carried out their study with the objective of employing a work domain examination for cybersecurity evaluation and establishment of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) structures. Although the application of information and communication technology in cyberspace allows automation and distribution management, it creates room for cybersecurity risks. Most cyber-physical systems use control practices that are being targeted by cybercriminals who make physical and financial damage without the application of force. The study involved work domain analysis in establishing the operational structures, as well as means-ends connection. The researchers also employed a case study method to examine the occurrence of cyberattacks. It was established that the abstraction hierarchies for creating a standard SCADA implementation and examining cyberattacks are valuable in the mapping of cybercrime vectors, finding loopholes in the set security measures, and assessing planned security resolutions concerning system goals. Therefore, work domain analysis is a successful analytical technique for assessing the cybersecurity of cyber physical systems in a psychologically appropriate way. Work domain analysis ought to be employed in the assessment of cybersecurity risks for the effective prevention of cyberattacks.


With the world continually advancing in terms of information technology, so are the impending threats to crucial data in cyberspace. The cybersecurity of governments around the world is still making futile efforts to address the underlying aspects of cyberattacks because there are no effective approaches to eliminating cybercrimes thanks to their disseminating nature. Challenges associated with cybersecurity are worldwide in scope because they are reliant on technology, economy, expertise, culture, and political arena. Assessments and findings by researchers underscore numerous concerns and threats linked to cybercrimes. As Wang et al. (2018) affirm, there are numerous and extensive spectrum points of exploitation in cybercrime concerning cybersecurity. At one end of the spectrum, cybercrimes are associated with personal and organization data, while at the other are criminal activities such as the denial of service, hacking, and spam, which interrupt activities on the Internet. At the midpoint of the spectrum are transaction-associated criminal undertakings such as money laundering, fraud, and piracy. This signifies that there are countless avenues of cybercrimes and the approaches employed by cybercriminals are diverse.

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Identification of the numerous forms of cyberattacks should be the first and crucial factor when thinking about cybersecurity. To ensure that cybersecurity becomes more robust, security experts should not merely seek to establish mainstream risks but also other rare cases of cybercrime that perforate networks once weaknesses are found and concealed. Furthermore, studies establish that internal risks within a company may be far more detrimental as the concerned individual understands where every crucial detail is stored and may take advantage of it at any time. Cyber threats do not only have the ability to attack the expertise of cybersecurity since they may also mislead and influence human minds (Cowley & Greitzer, 2015). It has been found that cybercriminals often employ tools and skills that are far more advanced and sophisticated than the ones used by organizational professionals. Moreover, they take advantage of human susceptibility as a means of achieving their maleficent objectives.

Limitations of Studies

The inconsistencies found in the study might have emanated from some limitations in the study carried out by Hatleback (2018). Such limitations arise from demographic aspects and technological setbacks. Concerning demographic aspects, the analysis is not clear-cut, and participants are unidentified. From the viewpoint of cybersecurity research, the article does not hold legitimate assertions of scientificity in the prevention of cybercrimes. This is made apparent by choice of literature, which establishes the areas where cybersecurity presently fails in terms of its attributes. It may be argued that the groups of cybersecurity researchers who come up with the literature for the prevention of cybercrimes are dishonestly creating the notion that their models are excellent. Concerning technological limitations, Hatleback (2018) does not accurately identify the challenges of creating an effective experimental design while addressing the engineered devices that are rife in computing. The presentation of cybersecurity concerns implies that it would be very hard to argue convincingly that the present models of preventing cyberattacks may be illustrated as well-established. If Hatleback (2018) studied a different approach to cybersecurity both in established and professional aspects, possibly, these limitations would not have arisen.

Data Integrity

Cybersecurity is one of the fundamental elements of data integrity as it guarantees information safety, confidentiality, and availability to users. The Saint Leo core values of integrity state that the dedication of the university to excellence requires that all the members embrace its mission and seek to uphold its promise. Students, staff, and the faculty give a guarantee of being just, truthful, and remaining reliable in word and action. For this reason, the term paper will touch on such aspects and discuss them with regard to all the three presented objectives.

Conclusion and Future Study

As technological developments continually rise around the globe, threats concerning the safety of data kept by major organizations and individuals are mounting. Cybersecurity involves the protection of personal electronic devices or systems in companies and government agencies, the data stored, and cyberspace networks against spies or attackers. Applications utilized in cyber attacks consist of malicious software, which might encompass worms, spyware, Trojans, or viruses. Cybersecurity is a critical issue in several countries across the world, and investigation needs to be carried out to provide effective interventions towards alleviation of the problem. Cybersecurity is a significant challenge not only for governments, organizations, and international agencies but also for every Internet user. Work domain analysis has proved effective in the assessment of cybersecurity threats for the successful prevention of cybercrime. It has been found that the majority of the present and previous studies mainly focus on theory-anchored approaches to underscore numerous threats to cybersecurity but do not discuss the issue on a quantitative basis. Having accurate data figures will assist future researchers and studies in prioritizing major threats and establish motivating factors for spreading awareness concerning cybersecurity.

Annotated Bibliography

Cowley, J. A., & Greitzer, F. L. (2015). Organizational impacts to cybersecurity expertise development and maintenance. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 59(1), 1187–1191. Web.

The article outlines the correlation between the work of organizations and the approach to cybersecurity among specialists working in the sphere. It contributes to a better understanding of current perspectives on the problem. Insufficiency of expertise in cybersecurity practices in part might be attributable to organizational issues that hamper data and knowledge development and protection.

Diffee, E., & Datta, P. (2018). Cybersecurity: The three-headed Janus. Journal of Information Technology Teaching Cases, 8(2), 161–171. Web.

The authors explain the nature of cybersecurity and discuss its fundamental elements that should be considered. Information can be used to show how the discussed issue should be addressed. Effective training on cybersecurity operations may establish an excellently prepared workforce that can successfully address cybercrime threats.

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Hatleback, E. N. (2018). The protoscience of cybersecurity. The Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation, 15(1), 5–12. Web.

The paper discusses the critical need for the new approach to cybersecurity regarding its increased importance. The information can be used in the project to evidence the need for an in-depth investigation. Effective cybersecurity may take numerous approaches such as prompt reaction to attacks, elimination of motivation factors, or strengthening of unexploited vulnerability.

Simon, S., & de Goede, M. (2015). Cybersecurity, bureaucratic vitalism and European emergency. Theory, Culture & Society, 32(2), 79–106. Web.

The document outlines the European modes of governing regarding the existing threat to the Internet and the possibility of interference. The security of data and the Internet have become paradigmatic with technological advancement. This is attributable to existing cyber-connections and their intricacy over traditional practices.

Wang, H., Lau, N., & Gerdes, R. M. (2018). Examining cybersecurity of cyberphysical systems for critical Infrastructures through work domain analysis. Human Factors, 60(5), 699–718. Web.

The authors discuss how essential infrastructures can be protected regarding the high risk of hacking. The paper can be used in the project to examine the existing threats and ways to resist them. Since absolute safety is not possible for electronic systems, cyberattacks that establish unexpected events will keep occurring, and an effective reaction will necessitate human adaptive capacity.

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