Human Developmental Disabilities in Students

This paper highlights different health conditions exhibited by students in the The United States of America and various parts of the world. It is an integrated focus on disabilities and disorders in the development and well being of the human body. The paper gives basic examples of sentences that use terms that relate human developmental disabilities in a bid to expound their essential uses and meaning.

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Emotional and behavior disorders (EBD)

Emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) refers to a disability in the emotional aspect of a human being which is shown by poor interpersonal relations, lack of ability to learn as well as unsound feelings even in a normal environment (Friend, 2011). These disorders tend to disorient the affected students and push them out of the category of learners who attend normal schools into the classification of those who need special education in special schools. In other words, Emotional and behavior disorders explain the existence of special schools for those students with health challenges.


Students with emotional and behavioral disorders have difficulties in their studies and they require special attention.

Emotional disturbance (ED)

This refers to the state of exhibiting emotional and behavioral disorders in a student for a relatively long time (Cullinan, 2006). Emotional disturbances are in most cases unavoidable they arise from the imbalance of the emotions of a student. It is worth noting that the latter has been the major cause and path of development of this disorder. Since studies indicate that every person has a unique set of feelings in different situations, a clear cut evaluation of these disturbances has not yet been invented.


Due to emotional disturbance, many students in schools in our nation do not exploit their full potential.

Socially maladjusted

This type of poor adjustment refers to the ill condition of a student characterized by unwillingness, disliking of school, negative attitude, excess risk-taking, and overreacting to simple mishaps( Friend, 2011). Social maladjustments among students are not an odd observation though there is a dire need of treating them as diseases and not as consequences of flawed parenting in today’s world which many believe has poor sets of morals upbringing Friend (Friend, 2011).


Socially maladjusted students are wise in the streets and uneasy in class.

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Mental disorders

Cullinan (2006) notes that mental disorder “refers to an abnormal state or pattern of the mind which is reflected in the way one behaves: (p. 200). Many victims of mental disorders are confused to be junkies according to evidence revealed in mental research studies. This is unfortunate since it is not just the use of drugs which leads to mental impairments. It is a fair opinion if the government runs an assessment in all rehabilitative centers since those who have been wrongly termed as drug addicts may as well be correctly diagnosed with ordinary mental disorders.


There are diverse causes of mental disorders among the humble citizens of the United States of America.

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)

This refers to a progressive anger pattern characterized by a lack of obedience, defiance, and distrust of authority by a student (Friend, 2011). Finally, the oppositional defiance disorder is also a major factor among the issues causing woes in the student community of the whole globe. Sentence: The Diagnostic Manual on Mental Disorders blames oppositional defiant disorder for the presence of many unruly students in our schools today.

Adaptive behavior

This refers to the type of behavioral pattern that is normally employed as part and parcel of adjusting to emerging situations that may be dangerous, threatening, or risking. Adaptive behavior may also be adopted as a response to a positive effect (Cullinan, 2006).


Most students exhibit adaptive behavior when transiting from one level of study to another which may sometimes affect their social character (Cullinan, 2006).

Cognitive impairment

This refers to some form of mild loss of brain stability which may be largely occasioned by old age (Friend, 2011).


Cognitive impairment is a common brain instability that is manifested through memory loss and poor response to environmental stimuli.

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Down Syndrome

Down syndrome is a common condition that affects the number of chromosomes in the human body such that an additional chromosome may be identified at the time of birth or through screening before birth (Friend, 2011).


Family support through love and affection is important for children with Down syndrome

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)

This refers to a genetic disorder that is exhibited in form of autism. In most cases, it has been associated with dramatic transformations in the X-chromosome (Friend, 2011).


Fragile X Syndrome is an inherited disorder that mainly manifests itself in form of mental retardation among affected individuals (Friend, 2011).

Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)

It is a genetic problem whereby the affected individuals undergo a myriad of complications such as poor mental growth as well as obesity right from the point of birth (Cullinan, 2006).


A low tone of muscle is a common and destructive feature found in people diagnosed with Prader-Willi Syndrome.


Cullinan, D. (2006). Students with emotional and behavioral disorders: an introduction for teachers and other helping professionals. New York: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.

Friend, M. (2011). Special Education: Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals (3rd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

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StudyCorgi. (2021, January 27). Human Developmental Disabilities in Students. Retrieved from

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"Human Developmental Disabilities in Students." StudyCorgi, 27 Jan. 2021,

1. StudyCorgi. "Human Developmental Disabilities in Students." January 27, 2021.


StudyCorgi. "Human Developmental Disabilities in Students." January 27, 2021.


StudyCorgi. 2021. "Human Developmental Disabilities in Students." January 27, 2021.


StudyCorgi. (2021) 'Human Developmental Disabilities in Students'. 27 January.

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