The views of Hobbes and Locke on the state of nature and natural rights
Hobbes believed that the state of nature is based on the natural rights as well as Locke. They also thought that people are free to acts as they want considering the natural rights. Still, their ideas differ, as Hobbes claimed that there is no personal property, and all people are willing to fight to preserve their lives while Locke said that all people have their own property, which should not be threatened by others otherwise the individual will be punished. Locke also associated the state of nature with Christian belief while Hobbes found no connection between theology and the state of nature.
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Rousseau’s criticism of both Hobbes and Locke regarding the state of nature
Rousseau criticized the views of both Hobbes and Locke regarding the state of nature. He believed that Hobbes imagined people who were raised in the society without it. He said that people are not born good or bad, as these philosophers thought. The society and environment, in which they were raised, formed them. Rousseau also disproved the idea of people being engaged in conflicts. His views seem to be reasonable, as they tend to avoid any false starts. Rousseau focuses on people as individuals who are influenced by other living beings, and his ideas were supported by many scholars.
The difference between the labor theory of property and labor theory of value
The labor theory of value underlines that labor is the force of nature. It can be measured by measuring the labor hours but not the number of people who worked, as the society is treated as a whole. According to the labor theory of property, all people have an equal opportunity to use the world and its resources, so those who produced some object own it, and the individuals but not time should be considered.
Karl Marx’s analysis of class struggle as presented in his Communist Manifesto
Karl Marx’s believed that all people are divided into two classes: workers and capitalists. The class struggle occurs when the individuals realize to what group they belong, define their shared interests and then start to take actions to prevent exploitation of the lower class. In other words, the conflict occurs because the interests of the groups fail to be common and differ greatly. It is not obligatory a violent process, but the issue is always critical.
Rhe views of Nozick and Hospers regarding legitimate laws and the role of government
Nozick believed that the government is to protect people and their property as well as Hospers who also accepted the idea of protection. Hospers believed that the laws should help the government and prohibit aggression. Nozick claimed that the laws should protect people, the taxes can be used for advantages in such spheres as healthcare and education, etc.
Rawls and Nozick on justice
Rawls claimed that the justice is fairness and people are to be treated equally regarding basic rights. Inequality may be observed if the goods are used to help those who are in need. Nozick believed in an entitlement theory of justice, according to which people can gain something only by dint of just acquisitions or at least the transfers made by free will.